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Foods 2017, 6(8), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6080066

Sodium Chloride and Its Influence on the Aroma Profile of Yeasted Bread

1
School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, National University of Ireland, College Road, T12 Y337 Cork, Ireland
2
Department of Sensory Analytics, Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV, 85354 Freising, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony Fardet
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes)
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Abstract

The impact of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the yeast activity in bread dough and its influence on the aroma profile of the baked bread was investigated. Key aroma compounds in the bread samples were analysed by two-dimensional high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with solvent-assisted flavour evaporation distillation. High-sensitivity proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry was used to detect and quantify 2-phenylethanol in the headspace of the bread dough during fermentation. The analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) changes in the aroma compounds 2-phenylethanol, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2,4-(E,E)-decadienal. Descriptive sensory analysis and discriminating triangle tests revealed that significant differences were only determinable in samples with different yeast levels but not samples with different NaCl concentrations. This indicates that a reduction in NaCl does not significantly influence the aroma profile of yeasted bread at levels above the odour thresholds of the relevant compounds, thus consumers in general cannot detect an altered odour profile of low‑salt bread crumb. View Full-Text
Keywords: descriptive sensory; PTR-MS; GC-MS; Ehrlich pathway; bread aroma; salt reduction chemical compounds: 2-phenylethanol (PubChem CID: 6054); (E)-2-nonenal (PubChem CID: 5283335); 2,4-(E,E)-decadienal (PubChem CID: 5283349) descriptive sensory; PTR-MS; GC-MS; Ehrlich pathway; bread aroma; salt reduction chemical compounds: 2-phenylethanol (PubChem CID: 6054); (E)-2-nonenal (PubChem CID: 5283335); 2,4-(E,E)-decadienal (PubChem CID: 5283349)
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Belz, M.C.E.; Axel, C.; Beauchamp, J.; Zannini, E.; Arendt, E.K.; Czerny, M. Sodium Chloride and Its Influence on the Aroma Profile of Yeasted Bread. Foods 2017, 6, 66.

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