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Foods 2018, 7(3), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods7030031

Production of Barbari Bread (Traditional Iranian Bread) Using Different Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and Sodium Stearoyl Lactate (SSL)

1
Dairy and Food Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
2
Department of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain-based Foods: Processing, Properties, and Heath Attributes)
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Abstract

Bread is one of the oldest foods known throughout history and even though it is one of the principal types of staple around the world, it usually lacks enough nutrients, including protein and fiber. As such, fortification is one of the best solutions to overcome this problem. Thus, the objective this study was to examine the effect of three levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) (0%, 10% and 20%) in conjunction with three levels of SSL (sodium stearoyl lactate) (0%, 2% and 5%) on physical and chemical properties of Barbari bread (traditional Iranian bread). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate DDGS and Sodium Stearoyl-2-Lactilate (SSL), as sources of fortification in Barbari bread. The results showed that incorporation of 20% of DDGS and 0% SSL caused a significant increase in the amount of fiber and protein. As for the physical attributes, using higher amount of DDGS caused a darker color, and as for the texture parameters, the highest firmness was measured when 10% DDGS and 5% of SSL were used. Different Mixolab and Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) parameters also were measured with varying results. The findings of this study show that DDGS can be a valuable source of fiber and protein, which can be used as a cost effective source to fortify cereal-based products. View Full-Text
Keywords: distillers dried grains with solubles; fortification; sodium stearoyl sactate distillers dried grains with solubles; fortification; sodium stearoyl sactate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Pourafshar, S.; Rosentrater, K.A.; Krishnan, P.G. Production of Barbari Bread (Traditional Iranian Bread) Using Different Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and Sodium Stearoyl Lactate (SSL). Foods 2018, 7, 31.

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