Special Issue "Carbon Nanoelectronics"

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A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 August 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Cory D. Cress

US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA
Interests: carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET); graphene field effect transistor (GFET); thin-film transistors; carbon nanoelectronics; flexible electronics; device characterization; non-equilibrium green's functions (NEGF); radiation effects

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In this Special Issue of Electronics on Carbon Nanoelectronics, we seek novel reports and review papers related to carbon nanomaterials and their use in electronic devices spanning from advanced high-performance digital and analog nanoelectronics to low-cost, printed, transparent or flexible thin-film transistors. Novel research reports may include experimental fabrication approaches, novel device results, or advanced carbon nanoelectronic device characterization techniques. We are also interested in theoretical papers pertaining to topics that range from basic transport to circuit-level design addressing unique aspects of carbon nanoelectronic devices. Review papers must capture the state-of-the-field within a broad or niche market, benchmark the requirements of carbon nanoelectronic devices for market adoption, discuss general approaches to carbon nanoelectronic device fabrication and characterization, and/or provide future outlook perspectives on carbon nanoelectronic devices. The use of carbon nanomaterials as the channel material in scaled digital electronic devices may potentially yield enhanced performance and improved energy-efficiency. In radio frequency and microwave applications, extremely high-speed operation and linearity are two primary drivers of interest in carbon nanomaterials. Other advanced technologies, such as high-speed interconnects and 3D integrated circuits are currently under investigation and uniquely suited for carbon nanomaterials. In the displays and flexible electronics markets, speed and energy-efficiency requirements are relaxed in lieu of transparency, mechanical robustness, large-area manufacturability, cost, etc. This summary of carbon nanoelectronics applications is not exhaustive, but rather, is intended to provide a sense of the scope of this Special Issue. We will give all papers related to carbon nanoelectronic materials and devices full consideration for publication. To limit redundancy, authors of review papers are encouraged to communicate their topic and scope to the Guest Editor in advance of submission.

Dr. Cory D. Cress
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET)
  • graphene field effect transistor (GFET)
  • thin-film transistors
  • carbon nanoelectronics
  • flexible electronics
  • device characterization
  • non-equilibrium green’s functions (NEGF)
  • radiation effects

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Carbon Nanoelectronics
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 22-25; doi:10.3390/electronics3010022
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (87 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Initiated by the first single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transistors [1,2], and reinvigorated with the isolation of graphene [3], the field of carbon-based nanoscale electronic devices and components (Carbon Nanoelectronics for short) has developed at a blistering pace [4]. Comprising a vast number [...] Read more.
Initiated by the first single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) transistors [1,2], and reinvigorated with the isolation of graphene [3], the field of carbon-based nanoscale electronic devices and components (Carbon Nanoelectronics for short) has developed at a blistering pace [4]. Comprising a vast number of scientists and engineers that span materials science, physics, chemistry, and electronics, this field seeks to provide an evolutionary transition path to address the fundamental scaling limitations of silicon CMOS [5]. Concurrently, researchers are actively investigating the use of carbon nanomaterials in applications including back-end interconnects, high-speed optoelectronic applications [6], spin-transport [7], spin tunnel barrier [8], flexible electronics, and many more. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Current-Perpendicular-to-Plane Magnetoresistance in Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Multilayer Graphene
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 315-331; doi:10.3390/electronics2030315
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) effects are often exploited in various state-of-the-art magnetic field sensing and data storage technologies. Most of the CPP-MR devices are artificial layered structures of ferromagnets and non-magnets, and in these devices, MR manifests, due to spin-dependent carrier transmission [...] Read more.
Current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) effects are often exploited in various state-of-the-art magnetic field sensing and data storage technologies. Most of the CPP-MR devices are artificial layered structures of ferromagnets and non-magnets, and in these devices, MR manifests, due to spin-dependent carrier transmission through the constituent layers. In this work, we explore another class of artificial layered structure in which multilayer graphene (MLG) is grown on a metallic substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We show that depending on the nature of the graphene-metal interaction, these devices can also exhibit large CPP-MR. Magnetoresistance ratios (>100%) are at least two orders of magnitude higher than “transferred” graphene and graphitic samples reported in the literature, for a comparable temperature and magnetic field range. This effect is unrelated to spin injection and transport and is not adequately described by any of the MR mechanisms known to date. The simple fabrication process, large magnitude of the MR and its persistence at room temperature make this system an attractive candidate for magnetic field sensing and data storage applications and, also, underscore the need for further fundamental investigations on graphene-metal interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Radiation-Induced Degradation in Top-Gated Epitaxial Graphene Field-Effect-Transistors (FETs)
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 234-245; doi:10.3390/electronics2030234
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 30 June 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates total ionizing dose (TID) effects in top-gated epitaxial graphene field-effect-transistors (GFETs). Measurements reveal voltage shifts in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and degradation of carrier mobility and minimum conductivity, consistent with the buildup of oxide-trapped charges. [...] Read more.
This paper investigates total ionizing dose (TID) effects in top-gated epitaxial graphene field-effect-transistors (GFETs). Measurements reveal voltage shifts in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and degradation of carrier mobility and minimum conductivity, consistent with the buildup of oxide-trapped charges. A semi-empirical approach for modeling radiation-induced degradation in GFETs effective carrier mobility is described in the paper. The modeling approach describes Coulomb and short-range scattering based on calculations of charge and effective vertical field that incorporate radiation-induced oxide trapped charges. The transition from the dominant scattering mechanism is correctly described as a function of effective field and oxide trapped charge density. Comparison with experimental data results in good qualitative agreement when including an empirical component to account for scatterer transparency in the low field regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Localized Trap-States and Corrugation on Charge Transport in Graphene Nanoribbons
Electronics 2013, 2(2), 178-191; doi:10.3390/electronics2020178
Received: 2 April 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 10 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1842 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate effects of the electron traps on adiabatic charge transport in graphene nanoribbons under a longitudinal surface acoustic wave (SAW) potential. Due to the weak SAW potential and strong transverse confinement of nanoribbons, minibands of sliding tunnel-coupled quantum dots are formed. [...] Read more.
We investigate effects of the electron traps on adiabatic charge transport in graphene nanoribbons under a longitudinal surface acoustic wave (SAW) potential. Due to the weak SAW potential and strong transverse confinement of nanoribbons, minibands of sliding tunnel-coupled quantum dots are formed. Therefore, as the chemical potential passes through minigaps, quantized adiabatic charge transport is expected to occur. We analyze the condition for a closed minigap, thereby destroying the current quantization in a nanoribbon. We present numerical calculations showing the localized energy states within minigaps. Additionally, we compare the results with the minibands of corrugated nanoribbons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)

Review

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Open AccessReview Graphene and Graphene Nanomesh Spintronics
Electronics 2013, 2(4), 368-386; doi:10.3390/electronics2040368
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (669 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spintronics, which manipulate spins but not electron charge, are highly valued as energy and thermal dissipationless systems. A variety of materials are challenging the realization of spintronic devices. Among those, graphene, a carbon mono-atomic layer, is very promising for efficient spin manipulation [...] Read more.
Spintronics, which manipulate spins but not electron charge, are highly valued as energy and thermal dissipationless systems. A variety of materials are challenging the realization of spintronic devices. Among those, graphene, a carbon mono-atomic layer, is very promising for efficient spin manipulation and the creation of a full spectrum of beyond-CMOS spin-based nano-devices. In the present article, the recent advancements in graphene spintronics are reviewed, introducing the observation of spin coherence and the spin Hall effect. Some research has reported the strong spin coherence of graphene. Avoiding undesirable influences from the substrate are crucial. Magnetism and spintronics arising from graphene edges are reviewed based on my previous results. In spite of carbon-based material with only sp2 bonds, the zigzag-type atomic structure of graphene edges theoretically produces spontaneous spin polarization of electrons due to mutual Coulomb interaction of extremely high electron density of states (edge states) localizing at the flat energy band. We fabricate honeycomb-like arrays of low-defect hexagonal nanopores (graphene nanomeshes; GNMs) on graphenes, which produce a large amount of zigzag pore edges, by using a nonlithographic method (nanoporous alumina templates) and critical temperature annealing under high vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. We observe large-magnitude ferromagnetism, which arises from polarized spins localizing at the hydrogen-terminated zigzag-nanopore edges of the GNMs, even at room temperature. Moreover, spin pumping effects are found for magnetic fields applied in parallel with the few-layer GNM planes. Strong spin coherence and spontaneously polarized edge spins of graphene can be expected to lead to novel spintronics with invisible, flexible, and ultra-light (wearable) features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)
Open AccessReview Variability and Reliability of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors
Electronics 2013, 2(4), 332-367; doi:10.3390/electronics2040332
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 18 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excellent electrical performance and extreme sensitivity to chemical species in semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon NanoTubes (s-SWCNTs) motivated the study of using them to replace silicon as a next generation field effect transistor (FET) for electronic, optoelectronic, and biological applications. In addition, use of [...] Read more.
Excellent electrical performance and extreme sensitivity to chemical species in semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon NanoTubes (s-SWCNTs) motivated the study of using them to replace silicon as a next generation field effect transistor (FET) for electronic, optoelectronic, and biological applications. In addition, use of SWCNTs in the recently studied flexible electronics appears more promising because of SWCNTs’ inherent flexibility and superior electrical performance over silicon-based materials. All these applications require SWCNT-FETs to have a wafer-scale uniform and reliable performance over time to a level that is at least comparable with the currently used silicon-based nanoscale FETs. Due to similarity in device configuration and its operation, SWCNT-FET inherits most of the variability and reliability concerns of silicon-based FETs, namely the ones originating from line edge roughness, metal work-function variation, oxide defects, etc. Additional challenges arise from the lack of chirality control in as-grown and post-processed SWCNTs and also from the presence of unstable hydroxyl (–OH) groups near the interface of SWCNT and dielectric. In this review article, we discuss these variability and reliability origins in SWCNT-FETs. Proposed solutions for mitigating each of these sources are presented and a future perspective is provided in general, which are required for commercial use of SWCNT-FETs in future nanoelectronic applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)
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Open AccessReview Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoribbons: Potentials for Nanoscale Electrical Interconnects
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 280-314; doi:10.3390/electronics2030280
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (9730 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon allotropes have generated much interest among different scientific communities due to their peculiar properties and potential applications in a variety of fields. Carbon nanotubes and more recently graphene have shown very interesting electrical properties along with the possibility of being grown [...] Read more.
Carbon allotropes have generated much interest among different scientific communities due to their peculiar properties and potential applications in a variety of fields. Carbon nanotubes and more recently graphene have shown very interesting electrical properties along with the possibility of being grown and/or deposited at a desired location. In this Review, we will focus our attention on carbon-based nanostructures (in particular, carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons) which could play an important role in the technological quest to replace copper/low-k for interconnect applications. We will provide the reader with a number of possible architectures, including single-wall as well as multi-wall carbon nanotubes, arranged in horizontal and vertical arrays, regarded as individual objects as well as bundles. Modification of their functional properties in order to fulfill interconnect applications requirements are also presented. Then, in the second part of the Review, recently discovered graphene and in particular graphene and few-graphene layers nanoribbons are introduced. Different architectures involving nanostructured carbon are presented and discussed in light of interconnect application in terms of length, chirality, edge configuration and more. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)
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