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Graphene and Graphene Nanomesh Spintronics
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258, Japan
Received: 11 September 2013; in revised form: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 5 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
Abstract: Spintronics, which manipulate spins but not electron charge, are highly valued as energy and thermal dissipationless systems. A variety of materials are challenging the realization of spintronic devices. Among those, graphene, a carbon mono-atomic layer, is very promising for efficient spin manipulation and the creation of a full spectrum of beyond-CMOS spin-based nano-devices. In the present article, the recent advancements in graphene spintronics are reviewed, introducing the observation of spin coherence and the spin Hall effect. Some research has reported the strong spin coherence of graphene. Avoiding undesirable influences from the substrate are crucial. Magnetism and spintronics arising from graphene edges are reviewed based on my previous results. In spite of carbon-based material with only sp2 bonds, the zigzag-type atomic structure of graphene edges theoretically produces spontaneous spin polarization of electrons due to mutual Coulomb interaction of extremely high electron density of states (edge states) localizing at the flat energy band. We fabricate honeycomb-like arrays of low-defect hexagonal nanopores (graphene nanomeshes; GNMs) on graphenes, which produce a large amount of zigzag pore edges, by using a nonlithographic method (nanoporous alumina templates) and critical temperature annealing under high vacuum and hydrogen atmosphere. We observe large-magnitude ferromagnetism, which arises from polarized spins localizing at the hydrogen-terminated zigzag-nanopore edges of the GNMs, even at room temperature. Moreover, spin pumping effects are found for magnetic fields applied in parallel with the few-layer GNM planes. Strong spin coherence and spontaneously polarized edge spins of graphene can be expected to lead to novel spintronics with invisible, flexible, and ultra-light (wearable) features.
Keywords: spintronics; graphene; edges; spin polarization; ferromagnetism; magnetoresistance; rare-metal free
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MDPI and ACS Style
Haruyama, J. Graphene and Graphene Nanomesh Spintronics. Electronics 2013, 2, 368-386.
Haruyama J. Graphene and Graphene Nanomesh Spintronics. Electronics. 2013; 2(4):368-386.
Haruyama, Junji. 2013. "Graphene and Graphene Nanomesh Spintronics." Electronics 2, no. 4: 368-386.