Special Issue "Catalytic Conversion of Biomass"

A special issue of Catalysts (ISSN 2073-4344).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rafael Luque

Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie (C-3), Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, E-14014, Córdoba, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34957211050
Interests: green chemistry; biomass valorization; heterogeneous catalysis; nanomaterial design
Guest Editor
Dr. Sudipta De

Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie (C-3), Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, E-14014, Córdoba, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomass valorization; carbon materials; mesoporous silicas; photochemistry
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alina M. Balu

Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie (C-3), Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, E-14014, Córdoba, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomass conversion; hemicellulose and humins valorization; renewable materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, extensive research and development programs have been initiated worldwide to convert lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products including chemicals and fuels. Transformation of biomass into a variety of useful compounds requires efficient methods. Two technologies are mainly applied to convert biomass: (1) thermal conversion and (2) chemical conversion. Chemical conversion is rather more important in terms of achieving chemicals as it uses ambient temperature range. During the last few years, many technologies (both chemocatalytic and biochemical) with improved catalytic systems have been established for the conversion of biomass feedstocks. However, many of them suffer from several disadvantages like, harsh chemical conditions, low production, high processing cost, etc. Therefore, we are still in search of such chemical process that can fulfill all the requirements from both economic and sustainable point of view. Integrated enzymatic catalysis is a good option in this regard which can offer several advantages as compared to chemical catalysis in terms of product selectivity, production cost and sustainability issues. This Special Issue is mainly focused on chemical conversion processes, which are supposed to develop innovative ideas from both academic and industrial aspects.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Particular focus will be given on the development of new catalysts and process technologies. Full papers, short communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Rafael Luque
Dr. Alina M. Balu
Dr. Sudipta De
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • biomass feedstocks
  • catalysts
  • enzymatic catalysis
  • biofuels
  • process development

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Catalytic Conversion of Biomass
Catalysts 2016, 6(10), 148; doi:10.3390/catal6100148
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Petroleum, natural gas and coal supply most of the energy consumed worldwide and their massive utilization has allowed our society to reach high levels of development in the past century.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Efficient Dehydration of Fructose to 5-Hydroxy-methylfurfural Catalyzed by Heteropolyacid Salts
Catalysts 2016, 6(4), 49; doi:10.3390/catal6040049
Received: 14 November 2015 / Revised: 1 February 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2016 / Published: 23 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), which is derived from numerous industrial biomass resources, has attracted attention in recent years due to its potential as a building block. In this paper, a range of heteropolyacid salts had been investigated for the dehydration of fructose to 5-HMF. CePW
[...] Read more.
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), which is derived from numerous industrial biomass resources, has attracted attention in recent years due to its potential as a building block. In this paper, a range of heteropolyacid salts had been investigated for the dehydration of fructose to 5-HMF. CePW12O40 demonstrated the best catalytic activity. Effects of fructose concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time on 5-HMF yield were investigated and optimised through a central composite design and response surface methodology. The optimal 5-HMF yield was 99.40% under the optimized reaction conditions of 5.48 mg/mL fructose loading, 158 °C temperature and 164 min reaction time. A kinetic analysis of the fructose conversion was also performed, and the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Steam Reforming of Bio-Ethanol to Produce Hydrogen over Co/CeO2 Catalysts Derived from Ce1−xCoxO2−y Precursors
Catalysts 2016, 6(2), 26; doi:10.3390/catal6020026
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 5 February 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2053 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of Ce1−xCoxO2−y precursors were prepared by homogeneous precipitation using urea as a precipitant. The Co/CeO2 catalysts obtained from the Ce1−xCoxO2−y precursors were used for the steam
[...] Read more.
A series of Ce1−xCoxO2−y precursors were prepared by homogeneous precipitation using urea as a precipitant. The Co/CeO2 catalysts obtained from the Ce1−xCoxO2−y precursors were used for the steam reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen. Co ions could enter the CeO2 lattices to form Ce1−xCoxO2−y mixed oxides at x ≤ 0.2 using the homogeneous precipitation (hp) method. CeO2 was an excellent support for Co metal in the steam reforming of ethanol because a strong interaction between support and metal (SISM) exists in the Co/CeO2 catalysts. Because Co/CeO2 (hp) prepared by homogeneous precipitation possessed a high BET surface area and small Co metal particles, Co/CeO2 (hp) showed a higher ethanol conversion than the Co/CeO2 catalysts prepared using the co-precipitation (cp) method and the impregnation (im) method. The selectivity of CO2 over Co/CeO2 (hp) increased with increasing reaction temperature at from 573 to 673 K, and decreased with increasing reaction temperature above 673 K due to the increase of CO formation. The carbonaceous deposits formed on the catalyst surface during the reaction caused a slow deactivation in the steam reforming of ethanol over Co/CeO2 (hp). The catalytic activity of the used catalysts could be regenerated by an oxidation-reduction treatment, calcined in air at 723 K and then reduced by H2 at 673 K. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
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Open AccessArticle High Efficient Hydrogenation of Lignin-Derived Monophenols to Cyclohexanols over Pd/γ-Al2O3 under Mild Conditions
Catalysts 2016, 6(1), 12; doi:10.3390/catal6010012
Received: 4 December 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 31 December 2015 / Published: 13 January 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (7340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The catalytic hydrogenation of lignin-derived monophenols with high efficiency and selectivity is important for the sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. Here, Pd/γ-Al2O3 was prepared via impregnation and used as catalyst for the hydrogenation of phenols to cyclohexanols under mild
[...] Read more.
The catalytic hydrogenation of lignin-derived monophenols with high efficiency and selectivity is important for the sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. Here, Pd/γ-Al2O3 was prepared via impregnation and used as catalyst for the hydrogenation of phenols to cyclohexanols under mild conditions in aqueous solution. 3 wt. % Pd/γ-Al2O3 exhibited good catalytic activity for the selective hydrogenation of 4-ethylphenol into 4-ethylcyclohexanol, and a conversion of 100% with selectivity of 98.9% was achieved at 60 °C for 12 h. Other lignin-derived monophenolic model compounds such as 4-methyl phenol and 4-propyl phenol could be hydrogenated into cyclohexanols selectively under optimal conditions. Moreover, the Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalyst displayed good activity for the hydrogenation of the mixture of monophenols directly derived from raw biomass system to cyclohexanols as the main products, and was favorable for the depolymerization of lignin oligomers under milder conditions. Pd/γ-Al2O3 catalyst showed good water resistance and stability after recycling four times. This result might provide a promising approach to selectively producing cyclohexanol directly from raw biomass material under mild conditions in aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid over Nickel Catalysts Supported on Aluminum Oxide to Prepare γ-Valerolactone
Catalysts 2016, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/catal6010006
Received: 19 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Four types of nickel catalysts supported on aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3) with different nickel loadings were synthesized using the co-precipitation method and were used for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to prepare γ-valerolactone (GVL). The synthesized Ni/Al2O
[...] Read more.
Four types of nickel catalysts supported on aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3) with different nickel loadings were synthesized using the co-precipitation method and were used for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to prepare γ-valerolactone (GVL). The synthesized Ni/Al2O3 catalysts exhibited excellent catalytic activity in dioxane, and the activity of the catalysts was excellent even after being used four times in dioxane. The catalytic activity in dioxane as a solvent was found to be superior to the activity in water. Nitrogen physisorption, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to characterize the fresh and used catalysts. The effects of the nickel loading, temperature, hydrogen pressure, and substrate/catalyst ratio on the catalytic activity were investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Cellulose to Gluconate on Carbon Aerogel Supported Gold Nanoparticles Anode in Alkaline Medium
Catalysts 2016, 6(1), 5; doi:10.3390/catal6010005
Received: 25 November 2015 / Revised: 24 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The development of high efficient and low energy consumption approaches for the transformation of cellulose is of high significance for a sustainable production of high value-added feedstocks. Herein, electrocatalytic oxidation technique was employed for the selective conversion of cellulose to gluconate in alkaline
[...] Read more.
The development of high efficient and low energy consumption approaches for the transformation of cellulose is of high significance for a sustainable production of high value-added feedstocks. Herein, electrocatalytic oxidation technique was employed for the selective conversion of cellulose to gluconate in alkaline medium by using concentrated HNO3 pretreated carbon aerogel (CA) supported Au nanoparticles as anode. Results show that a high gluconate yield of 67.8% and sum salts yield of 88.9% can be obtained after 18 h of electrolysis. The high conversion of cellulose and high selectivity to gluconate could be attributed to the good dissolution of cellulose in NaOH solution which promotes its hydrolysis, the surface oxidized CA support and Au nanoparticles catalyst which possesses high amount of active sites. Moreover, the bubbled air also plays important role in the enhancement of cellulose electrocatalytic conversion efficiency. Lastly, a probable mechanism for electrocatalytic oxidation of cellulose to gluconate in alkaline medium was also proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Catalytic Conversion of Glucose into 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural by Hf(OTf)4 Lewis Acid in Water
Catalysts 2016, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/catal6010001
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 13 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of Lewis acidic metal salts were used for glucose dehydration to 5-hydroymethylfurfural (HMF) in water. Effect of valence state, ionic radii of Lewis acidic cation, and the type of anions on the catalytic performance have been studied systematically. The experimental results
[...] Read more.
A series of Lewis acidic metal salts were used for glucose dehydration to 5-hydroymethylfurfural (HMF) in water. Effect of valence state, ionic radii of Lewis acidic cation, and the type of anions on the catalytic performance have been studied systematically. The experimental results showed that the valence state played an important role in determining catalytic activity and selectivity. It was found that a higher glucose conversion rate and HMF selectivity could be obtained over high valent Lewis acid salts, where the ionic radii of these Lewis acidic metal salts are usually relatively small. Analysis on the effect of the anions of Lewis acid salts on the catalytic activity and the selectivity suggested that a higher glucose conversion and HMF selectivity could be readily obtained with Cl. Furthermore, the recyclability of high valence state Lewis acid salt was also studied, however, inferior catalytic performance was observed. The deactivation mechanism was speculated to be the fact that high valence state Lewis acid salt was comparatively easier to undergo hydrolysis to yield complicated metal aqua ions with less catalytic activity. The Lewis acidic activity could be recovered by introducing a stoichiometric amount of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to the catalytic before the reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Experimental and Modeling Studies on the Conversion of Inulin to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Using Metal Salts in Water
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 2287-2308; doi:10.3390/catal5042287
Received: 24 October 2015 / Revised: 12 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Inulin, a plant polysaccharide consisting of mainly d-fructose units, is considered an interesting feed for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a top 12 bio-based chemical. We here report an exploratory experimental study on the use of a wide range of homogeneous metal salts as catalysts
[...] Read more.
Inulin, a plant polysaccharide consisting of mainly d-fructose units, is considered an interesting feed for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a top 12 bio-based chemical. We here report an exploratory experimental study on the use of a wide range of homogeneous metal salts as catalysts for the conversion of inulin to HMF in water. Best results were obtained using CuCl2. Activity-pH relations indicate that the catalyst activity of CuCl2 is likely related to Lewis acidity and not to Brönsted acidity. The effects of process conditions on HMF yield for CuCl2 were systematically investigated and quantified using a central composite design (160–180 °C, an inulin loading between 0.05 and 0.15 g/mL, CuCl2 concentration in range of 0.005–0.015 M, and a reaction time between 10 and 120 min). The highest experimental HMF yield in the process window was 30.3 wt. % (39 mol %, 180 °C, 0.05 g/mL inulin, 0.005 M CuCl2 and a reaction time of 10 min). The HMF yields were modelled using non-linear, multi variable regression and good agreement between experimental data and model were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
Open AccessArticle High-Throughput Screening of Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Conversion of Furfural to Bio-Based Fuel Components
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 2244-2257; doi:10.3390/catal5042244
Received: 15 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The one-pot catalytic reductive etherification of furfural to 2-methoxymethylfuran (furfuryl methyl ether, FME), a valuable bio-based chemical or fuel, is reported. A large number of commercially available hydrogenation heterogeneous catalysts based on nickel, copper, cobalt, iridium, palladium and platinum catalysts on various support
[...] Read more.
The one-pot catalytic reductive etherification of furfural to 2-methoxymethylfuran (furfuryl methyl ether, FME), a valuable bio-based chemical or fuel, is reported. A large number of commercially available hydrogenation heterogeneous catalysts based on nickel, copper, cobalt, iridium, palladium and platinum catalysts on various support were evaluated by a high-throughput screening approach. The reaction was carried out in liquid phase with a 10% w/w furfural in methanol solution at 50 bar of hydrogen. Among all the samples tested, carbon-supported noble metal catalysts were found to be the most promising in terms of productivity and selectivity. In particular, palladium on charcoal catalysts show high selectivity (up to 77%) to FME. Significant amounts of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) are observed as the major by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
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Open AccessArticle Jet-Fuel Range Hydrocarbons from Biomass-Derived Sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 Catalyst
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 2147-2160; doi:10.3390/catal5042147
Received: 10 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained
[...] Read more.
Aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons are the significant components of jet fuel with high energy-density. However, conventional technologies for bio-fuel production cannot produce these products without further aromatization and isomerization. In this work, renewable liquid fuel with high content of aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons was obtained through aqueous catalytic conversion of biomass sorbitol over Ni-HZSM-5/SBA-15 catalyst. Texture characteristics of the catalyst were determined by physisorption of N2, which indicated its bimodal pore structures were microporous (HZSM-5, pore width: 0.56 nm) and mesoporous (SBA-15, pore width: 8 nm). The surface acidity included weak and strong acid sites, predominantly Lewis type, and was further confirmed by the NH3-TPD and Py-IR analysis. The catalytic performances were tested in a fixed-bed reactor under the conditions of 593 K, WHSV of 0.75 h−1, GHSV of 2500 h−1 and 4.0 MPa of hydrogen pressure, whereby oil yield of 40.4 wt. % with aromatics and cyclic-hydrocarbons content of 80.0% was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
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Open AccessArticle Selective Production of Aromatics from 2-Octanol on Zinc Ion-Exchanged MFI Zeolite Catalysts
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 2122-2133; doi:10.3390/catal5042122
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aromatization of 2-octanol derived from castor oil as a byproduct in the formation of sebacic acid was investigated on various zeolite catalysts. Zn ion-exchanged MFI (ZSM-5) zeolites with small silica/alumina ratios and zinc contents of 0.5 to 2.0 wt. % were determined
[...] Read more.
The aromatization of 2-octanol derived from castor oil as a byproduct in the formation of sebacic acid was investigated on various zeolite catalysts. Zn ion-exchanged MFI (ZSM-5) zeolites with small silica/alumina ratios and zinc contents of 0.5 to 2.0 wt. % were determined to exhibit good and stable activity for the reaction at 623 to 823 K. The yield of aromatics was 62% at 773 K and the space velocity 350 to 1400 h−1. The temperature and contact time dependences of the product distributions indicated the reaction pathways of 2-octanol→dehydration to 2-octene→decomposition to C5 and C3 compounds→further decomposition to small alkanes and alkenes→aromatization with dehydrogenation. Alcohols with carbon numbers of 5 to 8 exhibited similar distributions of products compared to 2-octanol, while corresponding carbonyl compounds demonstrated different reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
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Open AccessArticle Co-Pyrolysis Behaviors of the Cotton Straw/PP Mixtures and Catalysis Hydrodeoxygenation of Co-Pyrolysis Products over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 Catalyst
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 2085-2097; doi:10.3390/catal5042085
Received: 4 October 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The doping of PP (polypropylene) with cotton straw improved the bio-oil yield, which showed there was a synergy in the co-pyrolysis of the cotton straw and PP at the range of 380–480 °C. In a fixed-bed reactor, model compounds and co-pyrolysis products were
[...] Read more.
The doping of PP (polypropylene) with cotton straw improved the bio-oil yield, which showed there was a synergy in the co-pyrolysis of the cotton straw and PP at the range of 380–480 °C. In a fixed-bed reactor, model compounds and co-pyrolysis products were used for reactants of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) over Ni-Mo/Al2O3. The deoxygenation rate of model compounds decreased over Ni-Mo/Al2O3 in the following order: alcohol > aldehyde > acetic acid > ethyl acetate. The upgraded oil mainly consisted of C11 alkane. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Direct Conversion of Carbohydrates into Ethyl Levulinate with Potassium Phosphotungstate as an Efficient Catalyst
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 1897-1910; doi:10.3390/catal5041897
Received: 18 September 2015 / Revised: 26 October 2015 / Accepted: 5 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of metal-modified phosphotungstates were prepared and performed for direct synthesis of ethyl levulinate from fructose in ethanol. Considering the cost of catalysts, catalytic activity of catalysts, and easy separation of catalysts together, K-HPW-1 was chosen as the most suitable catalyst for
[...] Read more.
A series of metal-modified phosphotungstates were prepared and performed for direct synthesis of ethyl levulinate from fructose in ethanol. Considering the cost of catalysts, catalytic activity of catalysts, and easy separation of catalysts together, K-HPW-1 was chosen as the most suitable catalyst for synthesis of ethyl levulinate from fructose. A high ethyl levulinate yield of 64.6 mol% was obtained at 150 °C within 2 h in ethanol. The introduction of low polar toluene as a co-solvent improved the yield of ethyl levulinate to 68.7 mol%. The recovered catalyst remained high activity with the yield of ethyl levulinate converted from fructose above 50 mol% after being used five times. Moreover, the generality of the catalyst was further demonstrated by glucose, sucrose, inulin, and cellulose with ethyl levulinate yielding 14.5, 35.4, 52.3, and 14.8 mol%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Zr-SBA-15 Lewis Acid Catalyst: Activity in Meerwein Ponndorf Verley Reduction
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 1911-1927; doi:10.3390/catal5041911
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (585 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Zr-SBA-15 Lewis acid catalyst has demonstrated an outstanding catalytic activity in the reduction of several carbonyl compounds by means of Meerwein Ponndorf Verley (MPV) reaction, using several secondary alcohols, and showing a very high selectivity towards the desired products. Special focus was addressed
[...] Read more.
Zr-SBA-15 Lewis acid catalyst has demonstrated an outstanding catalytic activity in the reduction of several carbonyl compounds by means of Meerwein Ponndorf Verley (MPV) reaction, using several secondary alcohols, and showing a very high selectivity towards the desired products. Special focus was addressed in the catalytic activity of Zr-SBA-15 material in the production of furfuryl alcohol from furfural, which is an important reaction for the lignocellulosic biomass valorization. In this transformation, both the reaction temperature and the i-PrOH:Furfural molar ratio exert a positive influence on the rate of the MPV transformation, with the influence of the former being much higher. i-propyl-furfuryl ether, a by-product resulting from the etherification of the target product with the sacrificing alcohol, is also found together with the main product. The production of this side-product is highly influenced by the reaction temperature, so that low temperatures and high sacrificing alcohol to substrate molar ratios have to be applied to keep its production at low levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
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Open AccessArticle Facile and Low-Cost Preparation of Nb/Al Oxide Catalyst with High Performance for the Conversion of Kiwifruit Waste Residue to Levulinic Acid
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 1636-1648; doi:10.3390/catal5041636
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 11 September 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The kiwifruit industry is booming worldwide. As a result, a great deal of kiwifruit waste residue (KWR) containing monosaccharides is produced and discarded. This material shows great potential for the production of platform chemicals. In this study, a series of Nb/Al oxide catalysts
[...] Read more.
The kiwifruit industry is booming worldwide. As a result, a great deal of kiwifruit waste residue (KWR) containing monosaccharides is produced and discarded. This material shows great potential for the production of platform chemicals. In this study, a series of Nb/Al oxide catalysts were synthesized via a facile and low-cost coprecipitation method, and their structures were characterized using: thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), XRD, FESEM, TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), NH3-TPD, N2 adsorption-desorption, and FTIR-Pyridine adsorption. Experimental results of sugar-to-levulinic acid (LA) conversion revealed that the 20%Nb/Al oxide catalyst provided the highest catalytic performance and durability in terms of LA yield from fructose (74.2%) at 463 K after 10 min and from glucose (47.5%) at 473 K after 15 min. Notably, the 20% Nb/Al oxide catalyst with a 10% dosage is capable of converting kiwifruit waste residue to LA at 473 K after 10 min. In conclusion, the enhanced catalytic performance was obtained due to the high acidity, and large surface areaof Nb/Al oxide catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
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