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Catalysts 2016, 6(1), 6; doi:10.3390/catal6010006

Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid over Nickel Catalysts Supported on Aluminum Oxide to Prepare γ-Valerolactone

Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rafael Luque
Received: 19 October 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Conversion of Biomass)
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Abstract

Four types of nickel catalysts supported on aluminum oxide (Ni/Al2O3) with different nickel loadings were synthesized using the co-precipitation method and were used for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to prepare γ-valerolactone (GVL). The synthesized Ni/Al2O3 catalysts exhibited excellent catalytic activity in dioxane, and the activity of the catalysts was excellent even after being used four times in dioxane. The catalytic activity in dioxane as a solvent was found to be superior to the activity in water. Nitrogen physisorption, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were employed to characterize the fresh and used catalysts. The effects of the nickel loading, temperature, hydrogen pressure, and substrate/catalyst ratio on the catalytic activity were investigated. View Full-Text
Keywords: nickel supported on aluminum oxide; γ-valerolactone; levulinic acid; hydrogenation; dioxane nickel supported on aluminum oxide; γ-valerolactone; levulinic acid; hydrogenation; dioxane
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fu, J.; Sheng, D.; Lu, X. Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid over Nickel Catalysts Supported on Aluminum Oxide to Prepare γ-Valerolactone. Catalysts 2016, 6, 6.

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