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Special Issue "Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Porous Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alina M. Balu

Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie (C-3), Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, E-14014, Córdoba, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomass conversion; hemicellulose and humins valorization; renewable materials
Guest Editor
Dr. Sudipta De

Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie (C-3), Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, E-14014, Córdoba, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biomass valorization; carbon materials; mesoporous silicas; photochemistry
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rafael Luque

Departamento de Química Orgánica, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie (C-3), Ctra Nnal IV, Km 396, E-14014, Córdoba, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +34957211050
Interests: green chemistry; biomass valorization; heterogeneous catalysis; nanomaterial design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the last two decades, porous carbons have attracted a great deal of attention for their various catalysis applications. Carbon materials derived from biomass resources are of special interest in this consequence, as they are highly economical and environmentally benign in nature. One of the best advantages of these materials is their simple functionalization, where advanced organic-inorganic hybrids can be synthesized just by doping the inorganic materials using an in situ or post-modification approach. Recently, a number of effective processes have been developed for the fabrication of porous carbons from biomass precursors that enabled excellent physical properties in the materials. These physical properties have been proved to be highly compatible for their diverse applications in several areas of catalysis including organic transformations, as well as electro- and photochemical processes. The development of innovative methodologies to convert biomass into useful materials is still a significant challenge in order to make potential and sustainable catalysts for future applications.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, short communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Alina M. Balu
Dr. Sudipta De
Prof. Rafael Luque
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • porous carbons
  • biomass feedstocks
  • advanced materials
  • hybrid nanocomposites
  • catalysis
  • organic transformations
  • energy applications

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Tailored N-Containing Carbons as Catalyst Supports in Alcohol Oxidation
Materials 2016, 9(2), 114; doi:10.3390/ma9020114
Received: 9 December 2015 / Revised: 29 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The introduction of N-containing functionalities in carbon-based materials is brought to stable and highly active metal-supported catalysts. However, up to now, the role of the amount and the nature of N-groups have not been completely clear. This study aims to clarify these aspects
[...] Read more.
The introduction of N-containing functionalities in carbon-based materials is brought to stable and highly active metal-supported catalysts. However, up to now, the role of the amount and the nature of N-groups have not been completely clear. This study aims to clarify these aspects by preparing tailored N-containing carbons where different N-groups are introduced during the synthesis of the carbon material. These materials were used as the support for Pd nanoparticles. Testing these catalysts in alcohol oxidations and comparing the results with those obtained using Pd nanoparticles supported on different N-containing supports allowed us to obtain insight into the role of the different N-containing groups. In the cinnamyl alcohol oxidation, pyridine-like groups seem to favor both activity and selectivity toward cinnamaldehyde. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Activation of Aspen Wood with Carbon Dioxide and Phosphoric Acid for Removal of Total Organic Carbon from Oil Sands Produced Water: Increasing the Yield with Bio-Oil Recycling
Materials 2016, 9(1), 20; doi:10.3390/ma9010020
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Several samples of activated carbon were prepared by physical (CO2) and chemical (H3PO4) activation of aspen wood and tested for the adsorption of organic compounds from water generated during the recovery of bitumen using steam assisted gravity
[...] Read more.
Several samples of activated carbon were prepared by physical (CO2) and chemical (H3PO4) activation of aspen wood and tested for the adsorption of organic compounds from water generated during the recovery of bitumen using steam assisted gravity drainage. Total organic carbon removal by the carbon samples increased proportionally with total pore volume as determined from N2 adsorption isotherms at −196 °C. The activated carbon produced by CO2 activation had similar removal levels for total organic carbon from the water (up to 70%) to those samples activated with H3PO4, but lower yields, due to losses during pyrolysis and activation. A method to increase the yield when using CO2 activation was proposed and consisted of recycling bio-oil produced from previous runs to the aspen wood feed, followed by either KOH addition (0.48%) or air pretreatment (220 °C for 3 h) before pyrolysis and activation. By recycling the bio-oil, the yield of CO2 activated carbon (after air pretreatment of the mixture) was increased by a factor of 1.3. Due to the higher carbon yield, the corresponding total organic carbon removal, per mass of wood feed, increased by a factor of 1.2 thus improving the overall process efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass)
Open AccessArticle The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction
Materials 2016, 9(1), 1; doi:10.3390/ma9010001
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900) as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for
[...] Read more.
The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900) as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE) and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Biomass Pyrolysis Solids as Reducing Agents: Comparison with Commercial Reducing Agents
Materials 2016, 9(1), 3; doi:10.3390/ma9010003
Received: 22 October 2015 / Revised: 4 December 2015 / Accepted: 16 December 2015 / Published: 23 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomass is one of the most suitable options to be used as renewable energy source due to its extensive availability and its contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under appropriate conditions (slow heating rate and high temperatures) can produce
[...] Read more.
Biomass is one of the most suitable options to be used as renewable energy source due to its extensive availability and its contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under appropriate conditions (slow heating rate and high temperatures) can produce a quality solid product, which could be applicable to several metallurgical processes as reducing agent (biocoke or bioreducer). Two woody biomass samples (olives and eucalyptus) were pyrolyzed to produce biocoke. These biocokes were characterized by means of proximate and ultimate analysis, real density, specific surface area, and porosity and were compared with three commercial reducing agents. Finally, reactivity tests were performed both with the biocokes and with the commercial reducing agents. Bioreducers have lower ash and sulfur contents than commercial reducers, higher surface area and porosity, and consequently, much higher reactivity. Bioreducers are not appropriate to be used as top burden in blast furnaces, but they can be used as fuel and reducing agent either tuyére injected at the lower part of the blast furnace or in non-ferrous metallurgical processes where no mechanical strength is needed as, for example, in rotary kilns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass)
Open AccessArticle Inexpensive Ipomoea aquatica Biomass-Modified Carbon Black as an Active Pt-Free Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in an Alkaline Medium
Materials 2015, 8(10), 6658-6667; doi:10.3390/ma8105331
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 22 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 25 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1810 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of inexpensive and active Pt-free catalysts as an alternative to Pt-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an essential prerequisite for fuel cell commercialization. In this paper, we report a strategy for the design of a new Fe–N/C electrocatalyst derived
[...] Read more.
The development of inexpensive and active Pt-free catalysts as an alternative to Pt-based catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an essential prerequisite for fuel cell commercialization. In this paper, we report a strategy for the design of a new Fe–N/C electrocatalyst derived from the co-pyrolysis of Ipomoea aquatica biomass, carbon black (Vulcan XC-72R) and FeCl3·6H2O at 900 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical results show that the Fe–N/C catalyst exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity for ORR, longer durability and higher tolerance to methanol compared to a commercial Pt/C catalyst (40 wt %) in an alkaline medium. In particular, Fe–N/C presents an onset potential of 0.05 V (vs. Hg/HgO) for ORR in an alkaline medium, with an electron transfer number (n) of ~3.90, which is close to that of Pt/C. Our results confirm that the catalyst derived from I. aquatica and carbon black is a promising non-noble metal catalyst as an alternative to commercial Pt/C catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbonaceous Materials from Biomass)

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