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Special Issue "Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes"

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A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2014)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Friedemann T. Freund (Website)

1 NASA Ames Research Center, Earth Science Division, Code SGE, MS 245-4, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
2 SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave., Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
Phone: 650 604-5183
Interests: My work on defects in crystals and minerals, which started out with a focus on solid state physics, has led me to the discovery of changes in the valence (oxidation state) of those oxygen anions, which make up the bulk of all rocks on Earth. This opened the door to better understand why, when rocks are stressed (for instance by the tectonic forces in the Earth prior to earthquakes), electric currents start to flow. These electric currents manifest themselves in many different and sometimes unexpected ways, both through their physical and chemical effects. My studies of these phenomena led to my interest in the possible consequences for the biological world as expressed in the often reported unusual behaviour patterns of animals before major earthquakes. Even human health seems to be at stake.
Guest Editor
Dr. Rachel A. Grant (Website)

Department of Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Rd. Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
Interests: My primary research interest is animal behaviour, in particular the interdisciplinary areas of geophysics/geochemistry and interaction with behaviour and ecology. I have worked extensively with amphibians and their reaction to lunar-related environmental changes. My work on toads in Italy led to the publication of a paper detailing their reaction to a large earthquake at L’Aquila. This has led me to be interested in unusual animal behaviour and other biological anomalies or indicators prior to earthquakes, and the possible mechanisms causing this.
Guest Editor
Dr. Viktor Stolc (Website)

NASA Ames Research Center, Life Sciences Division, Building 261, Room 115, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
Interests: Space biomedical research to investigate the physical basis for interactions between environmental conditions generated by the Sun’s heliosphere and geophysical dynamics, and biochemical dynamics that include genetic mutation, and human health and performance. Experimental and computational approaches to define the physical basis for resonance between the ambient electromagnetic field and the universal electromagnetic field generated by living cells is the focus of this work. For example, the induction of resonance between the Earth’s electromagnetic field spectrum (e.g., Schumann resonances, at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.86 (fundamental), 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.) and electromagnetic oscillations generated by the universal electron transport chain redox cycle in living cells are investigated. Model systems that are proven genomically tractable organisms are used for identifying the genetic basis for risk factors from spaceflight. NASA’s results suggest that electromagnetic interactions between the environment and living cells may define the physical basis of human health and genetic variation among organisms by a discrete and iterative feedback mechanism. This work supports crew health and performance in NASA space exploration missions as well as the Astrobiology Program.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Unusual animal behaviour, and other bio-anomalies preceding large earthquakes, have been reported through the ages. Recently, ground breaking advances in solid state physics, combined with other approaches such as satellite technology and radio sounding methods, along with some fortuitous observations of pre-seismic biological changes, have enabled a greater understanding of how some of these bioanomalies may come about. This special issue intends to bring together cutting edge research on this important topic, in order to advance the state of earthquake biology research and encourage further investigation in this controversial, but critically important subject, which is of fundamental scientific interest and also may have the potential to contribute to short term hazard risk forecasting. By nature the subject matter is cross-disciplinary and will span sometimes disparate research areas. Therefore the editors will consider any topic in the broad area of earthquake biology and pre-submission enquiries are welcomed.

The scope of the issue shall include, but is not limited to the following topics:

  • Reports of unusual animal behaviour before earthquakes
  • Reports of marine and freshwater strandings linked with earthquakes
  • Reports of other biological anomalies before earthquakes (such as changes in microbial flora, zooplankton or other single celled animals)
  • Medical effects prior to large earthquakes (such as changes in brain serotonin)
  • Hypotheses relating to potential mechanisms for pre seismic bioanomalies
  • Changes in circadian rhythms and other physiological changes prior to earthquakes
  • Possible indicator species for short-term earthquake risk forecasting
  • Changes in water chemistry and their likely biological effects
  • Avoidance of false alarms, by defining and identifying normal/abnormal behaviour
  • Reviews of the current state of knowledge, and meta-analyses
  • Biological indicators of fault systems
  • Palynology/limnology and earthquakes

The scope of the issue does not include:

  • Purely geophysical effects with no probable biological consequences
  • Biological changes occurring after earthquakes have taken place.

Prof. Dr. Friedemann T. Freund
Dr. Rachel A. Grant
Dr. Viktor Stolc
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Animals is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 500 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • earthquake
  • natural hazards
  • animal behaviour
  • bioanomalies
  • seismicity

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessCommunication Behavioral Response of Invertebrates to Experimental Simulation of Pre-Seismic Chemical Changes
Animals 2015, 5(2), 206-213; doi:10.3390/ani5020206
Received: 21 February 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 18 March 2015 / Published: 31 March 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at [...] Read more.
Unusual behavior before earthquakes has been reported for millennia but no plausible mechanism has been identified. One possible way in which animals could be affected by pre-earthquake processes is via stress activated positive holes leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide at the rock water interface. Aquatic and fossorial animals could be irritated by H2O2 and move down the concentration gradient. Here, we carry out avoidance tests with hydrogen peroxide in two model organisms; Daphnia pulex and earthworms. Daphnia were found to move away from increasing concentrations of H2O2 but earthworms appeared unaffected. It is possible that earthworm swarming behavior, reported frequently before earthquakes, is caused by electric field shifts or another unknown mechanism, whereas zooplankton may be affected by increasing levels of H2O2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle Unusual Animal Behavior Preceding the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, Japan: A Way to Predict the Approach of Large Earthquakes
Animals 2014, 4(2), 131-145; doi:10.3390/ani4020131
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 3 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unusual animal behaviors (UABs) have been observed before large earthquakes (EQs), however, their mechanisms are unclear. While information on UABs has been gathered after many EQs, few studies have focused on the ratio of emerged UABs or specific behaviors prior to EQs. [...] Read more.
Unusual animal behaviors (UABs) have been observed before large earthquakes (EQs), however, their mechanisms are unclear. While information on UABs has been gathered after many EQs, few studies have focused on the ratio of emerged UABs or specific behaviors prior to EQs. On 11 March 2011, an EQ (Mw 9.0) occurred in Japan, which took about twenty thousand lives together with missing and killed persons. We surveyed UABs of pets preceding this EQ using a questionnaire. Additionally, we explored whether dairy cow milk yields varied before this EQ in particular locations. In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species. Most UABs occurred within one day of the EQ. The UABs showed a precursory relationship with epicentral distance. Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ. However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases. Since both the pets’ behavior and the dairy cows’ milk yields were affected prior to the EQ, with careful observation they could contribute to EQ predictions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle Frog Swarms: Earthquake Precursors or False Alarms?
Animals 2013, 3(4), 962-977; doi:10.3390/ani3040962
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been [...] Read more.
In short-term earthquake risk forecasting, the avoidance of false alarms is of utmost importance to preclude the possibility of unnecessary panic among populations in seismic hazard areas. Unusual animal behaviour prior to earthquakes has been reported for millennia but has rarely been scientifically documented. Recently large migrations or unusual behaviour of amphibians have been linked to large earthquakes, and media reports of large frog and toad migrations in areas of high seismic risk such as Greece and China have led to fears of a subsequent large earthquake. However, at certain times of year large migrations are part of the normal behavioural repertoire of amphibians. News reports of “frog swarms” from 1850 to the present day were examined for evidence that this behaviour is a precursor to large earthquakes. It was found that only two of 28 reported frog swarms preceded large earthquakes (Sichuan province, China in 2008 and 2010). All of the reported mass migrations of amphibians occurred in late spring, summer and autumn and appeared to relate to small juvenile anurans (frogs and toads). It was concluded that most reported “frog swarms” are actually normal behaviour, probably caused by juvenile animals migrating away from their breeding pond, after a fruitful reproductive season. As amphibian populations undergo large fluctuations in numbers from year to year, this phenomenon will not occur on a yearly basis but will depend on successful reproduction, which is related to numerous climatic and geophysical factors. Hence, most large swarms of amphibians, particularly those involving very small frogs and occurring in late spring or summer, are not unusual and should not be considered earthquake precursors. In addition, it is likely that reports of several mass migration of small toads prior to the Great Sichuan Earthquake in 2008 were not linked to the subsequent M = 7.9 event (some occurred at a great distance from the epicentre), and were probably co-incidence. Statistical analysis of the data indicated frog swarms are unlikely to be connected with earthquakes. Reports of unusual behaviour giving rise to earthquake fears should be interpreted with caution, and consultation with experts in the field of earthquake biology is advised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle Biological Anomalies around the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake
Animals 2013, 3(3), 693-721; doi:10.3390/ani3030693
Received: 4 February 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 6 August 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The April 6, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake was the strongest seismic event to occur in Italy over the last thirty years with a magnitude of M = 6.3. Around the time of the seismic swarm many instruments were operating in Central Italy, even [...] Read more.
The April 6, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake was the strongest seismic event to occur in Italy over the last thirty years with a magnitude of M = 6.3. Around the time of the seismic swarm many instruments were operating in Central Italy, even if not dedicated to biological effects associated with the stress field variations, including seismicity. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire immediately after the main shock, including data on earthquake lights, gas leaks, human diseases, and irregular animal behavior. The questionnaire was made up of a sequence of arguments, based upon past historical earthquake observations and compiled over seven months after the main shock. Data on animal behavior, before, during and after the main shocks, were analyzed in space/time distributions with respect to the epicenter area, evidencing the specific responses of different animals. Several instances of strange animal behavior were observed which could causally support the hypotheses that they were induced by the physical presence of gas, electric charges and electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. The aim of this study was to order the biological observations and thereby allow future work to determine whether these observations were influenced by geophysical parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle Nature of Pre-Earthquake Phenomena and their Effects on Living Organisms
Animals 2013, 3(2), 513-531; doi:10.3390/ani3020513
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 28 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Earthquakes occur when tectonic stresses build up deep in the Earth before catastrophic rupture. During the build-up of stress, processes that occur in the crustal rocks lead to the activation of highly mobile electronic charge carriers. These charge carriers are able to [...] Read more.
Earthquakes occur when tectonic stresses build up deep in the Earth before catastrophic rupture. During the build-up of stress, processes that occur in the crustal rocks lead to the activation of highly mobile electronic charge carriers. These charge carriers are able to flow out of the stressed rock volume into surrounding rocks. Such outflow constitutes an electric current, which generates electromagnetic (EM) signals. If the outflow occurs in bursts, it will lead to short EM pulses. If the outflow is continuous, the currents may fluctuate, generating EM emissions over a wide frequency range. Only ultralow and extremely low frequency (ULF/ELF) waves travel through rock and can reach the Earth surface. The outflowing charge carriers are (i) positively charged and (ii) highly oxidizing. When they arrive at the Earth surface from below, they build up microscopic electric fields, strong enough to field-ionize air molecules. As a result, the air above the epicentral region of an impending major earthquake often becomes laden with positive airborne ions. Medical research has long shown that positive airborne ions cause changes in stress hormone levels in animals and humans. In addition to the ULF/ELF emissions, positive airborne ions can cause unusual reactions among animals. When the charge carriers flow into water, they oxidize water to hydrogen peroxide. This, plus oxidation of organic compounds, can cause behavioral changes among aquatic animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle GeoBioScience: Red Wood Ants as Bioindicators for Active Tectonic Fault Systems in the West Eifel (Germany)
Animals 2013, 3(2), 475-498; doi:10.3390/ani3020475
Received: 13 March 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 May 2013 / Published: 17 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group) sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens [...] Read more.
In a 1.140 km² study area of the volcanic West Eifel, a comprehensive investigation established the correlation between red wood ant mound (RWA; Formica rufa-group) sites and active tectonic faults. The current stress field with a NW-SE-trending main stress direction opens pathways for geogenic gases and potential magmas following the same orientation. At the same time, Variscan and Mesozoic fault zones are reactivated. The results showed linear alignments and clusters of approx. 3,000 RWA mounds. While linear mound distribution correlate with strike-slip fault systems documented by quartz and ore veins and fault planes with slickensides, the clusters represent crosscut zones of dominant fault systems. Latter can be correlated with voids caused by crustal block rotation. Gas analyses from soil air, mineral springs and mofettes (CO2, Helium, Radon and H2S) reveal limiting concentrations for the spatial distribution of mounds and colonization. Striking is further the almost complete absence of RWA mounds in the core area of the Quaternary volcanic field. A possible cause can be found in occasionally occurring H2S in the fault systems, which is toxic at miniscule concentrations to the ants. Viewed overall, there is a strong relationship between RWA mounds and active tectonics in the West Eifel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle On the Possible Detection of Lightning Storms by Elephants
Animals 2013, 3(2), 349-355; doi:10.3390/ani3020349
Received: 2 February 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 April 2013 / Published: 18 April 2013
PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × [...] Read more.
Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10−3 Pa. Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing. Frequencies carrying these sounds might allow for interaural time delays such that adult elephants could not only hear but could also locate the source of these sounds. Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessCommunication Bio-Mimetics of Disaster Anticipation—Learning Experience and Key-Challenges
Animals 2013, 3(1), 274-299; doi:10.3390/ani3010274
Received: 10 February 2013 / Revised: 13 March 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 19 March 2013
PDF Full-text (681 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down [...] Read more.
Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down the knowledge available to ancient natural philosophers. Starting with an archaeologically documented human sacrifice around 1700 B.C. during the Minoan civilization immediately before a large earthquake, which killed the participants, earthquake prediction knowledge throughout antiquity is evaluated. Major practical experience with this phenomenon has been gained from a Chinese earthquake prediction initiative nearly half a century ago. Some quakes, like that of Haicheng, were recognized in advance. However, the destructive Tangshan earthquake was not predicted, which was interpreted as an inherent failure of prediction based on animal phenomena. This is contradicted on the basis of reliable Chinese documentation provided by the responsible earthquake study commission. The Tangshan earthquake was preceded by more than 2,000 reported animal anomalies, some of which were of very dramatic nature. They are discussed here. Any physical phenomenon, which may cause animal unrest, must involve energy turnover before the main earthquake event. The final product, however, of any energy turnover is heat. Satellite based infrared measurements have indeed identified significant thermal anomalies before major earthquakes. One of these cases, occurring during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, is analyzed together with parallel animal anomalies observed in the Gir national park. It is suggested that the time window is identical and that both phenomena have the same geophysical origin. It therefore remains to be demonstrated that energy can be released locally before major earthquake events. It is shown that by considering appropriate geophysical feedback processes, this is possible for large scale energy conversion phenomena within highly non-linear geophysical mechanisms. With satellite monitored infrared anomalies indicating possible epicenters and local animal and environmental observations immediately initiated, the learning experience towards an understanding of the phenomena involved could be accelerated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle Unusual Childhood Waking as a Possible Precursor of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake
Animals 2013, 3(1), 228-237; doi:10.3390/ani3010228
Received: 4 January 2013 / Revised: 21 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nearly 1,100 young students living in Japan at a range of distances up to 500 km from the 1995 Kobe M7 earthquake were interviewed. A statistically significant abnormal rate of early wakening before the earthquake was found, having exponential decrease with distance [...] Read more.
Nearly 1,100 young students living in Japan at a range of distances up to 500 km from the 1995 Kobe M7 earthquake were interviewed. A statistically significant abnormal rate of early wakening before the earthquake was found, having exponential decrease with distance and a half value approaching 100 km, but decreasing much slower than from a point source such as an epicentre; instead originating from an extended area of more than 100 km in diameter. Because an improbably high amount of variance is explained, this effect is unlikely to be simply psychological and must reflect another mechanism—perhaps Ultra-Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic waves creating anxiety—but probably not 222Rn excess. Other work reviewed suggests these conclusions may be valid for animals in general, not just children, but would be very difficult to apply for practical earthquake prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle Early Results of Three-Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants’ Behavioral Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events
Animals 2013, 3(1), 63-84; doi:10.3390/ani3010063
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 25 January 2013 / Accepted: 28 January 2013 / Published: 4 February 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in [...] Read more.
Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days are currently not possible due to both incomplete understanding of the complex tectonic processes and inadequate observations. Abnormal animal behaviors before earthquakes have been reported previously, but create problems in monitoring and reliability. The situation is different with red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)). They have stationary mounds on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas. For three years (2009–2012), two red wood ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), have been monitored 24/7 by high-resolution cameras with both a color and an infrared sensor. Early results show that ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants’ behavior hours before the earthquake: the nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine does not resume until the next day. At present, an automated image evaluation routine is being applied to the more than 45,000 hours of video streams. Based on this automated approach, a statistical analysis of the ants’ behavior will be carried out. In addition, other parameters (climate, geotectonic and biological), which may influence behavior, will be included in the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
Open AccessArticle Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake
Animals 2013, 3(1), 19-32; doi:10.3390/ani3010019
Received: 4 December 2012 / Revised: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 10 January 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to [...] Read more.
The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15–20 years. From the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f ≤ 1 Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f ≤ a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behavior. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behavior before an EQ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)

Other

Jump to: Research

Open AccessCase Report Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study
Animals 2014, 4(2), 292-312; doi:10.3390/ani4020292
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 19 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The September–October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria–Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three [...] Read more.
The September–October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria–Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L’Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows’ behavior—local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes—is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)

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