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Animals 2013, 3(3), 693-721; doi:10.3390/ani3030693
Article

Biological Anomalies around the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake

Received: 4 February 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 6 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
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Simple Summary: Earthquakes have been seldom associated with reported non-seismic phenomena observed weeks before and after shocks. Non-seismic phenomena are characterized by radio disturbances and light emissions as well as degassing of vast areas near the epicenter with chemical alterations of shallow geospheres (aquifers, soils) and the troposphere. Many animals are sensitive to even the weakest changes in the environment, typically responding with behavioral and physiological changes. A specific questionnaire was developed to collect data on these changes around the time of the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake.
Abstract: The April 6, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake was the strongest seismic event to occur in Italy over the last thirty years with a magnitude of M = 6.3. Around the time of the seismic swarm many instruments were operating in Central Italy, even if not dedicated to biological effects associated with the stress field variations, including seismicity. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire immediately after the main shock, including data on earthquake lights, gas leaks, human diseases, and irregular animal behavior. The questionnaire was made up of a sequence of arguments, based upon past historical earthquake observations and compiled over seven months after the main shock. Data on animal behavior, before, during and after the main shocks, were analyzed in space/time distributions with respect to the epicenter area, evidencing the specific responses of different animals. Several instances of strange animal behavior were observed which could causally support the hypotheses that they were induced by the physical presence of gas, electric charges and electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. The aim of this study was to order the biological observations and thereby allow future work to determine whether these observations were influenced by geophysical parameters.
Keywords: plants; animals; humans; earthquakes; electric signals; positive holes; gas leaks plants; animals; humans; earthquakes; electric signals; positive holes; gas leaks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fidani, C. Biological Anomalies around the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake. Animals 2013, 3, 693-721.

AMA Style

Fidani C. Biological Anomalies around the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake. Animals. 2013; 3(3):693-721.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fidani, Cristiano. 2013. "Biological Anomalies around the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake." Animals 3, no. 3: 693-721.


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