Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Unusual Childhood Waking as a Possible Precursor of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake
Quantum Geophysics Laboratory, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Osaka, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
Whitehead Associates, 54 Redvers Drive, Lower Hutt, 5010, New Zealand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2013; in revised form: 21 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
Simple Summary: The paper investigates whether young children may waken before earthquakes through a cause other than foreshocks. It concludes there is statistical evidence for this, but the mechanism best supported is anxiety produced by Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic waves.
Abstract: Nearly 1,100 young students living in Japan at a range of distances up to 500 km from the 1995 Kobe M7 earthquake were interviewed. A statistically significant abnormal rate of early wakening before the earthquake was found, having exponential decrease with distance and a half value approaching 100 km, but decreasing much slower than from a point source such as an epicentre; instead originating from an extended area of more than 100 km in diameter. Because an improbably high amount of variance is explained, this effect is unlikely to be simply psychological and must reflect another mechanism—perhaps Ultra-Low Frequency (ULF) electromagnetic waves creating anxiety—but probably not 222Rn excess. Other work reviewed suggests these conclusions may be valid for animals in general, not just children, but would be very difficult to apply for practical earthquake prediction.
Keywords: earthquakes; Kobe; Hanshin; children; sleep; precursors; Rn-222
Article StatisticsClick here to load and display the download statistics.
Notes: Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Ikeya, M.; Whitehead, N.E. Unusual Childhood Waking as a Possible Precursor of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Animals 2013, 3, 228-237.
Ikeya M, Whitehead NE. Unusual Childhood Waking as a Possible Precursor of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake. Animals. 2013; 3(1):228-237.
Ikeya, Motoji; Whitehead, Neil E. 2013. "Unusual Childhood Waking as a Possible Precursor of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake." Animals 3, no. 1: 228-237.