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Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake
Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electromagnetics Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
Advanced Wireless Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Kita-aoyama 2-12-42-R305, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-0061, Japan
Received: 4 December 2012; in revised form: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 10 January 2013
Simple Summary: Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes.
Abstract: The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15–20 years. From the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f ≤ 1 Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f ≤ a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behavior. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behavior before an EQ.
Keywords: abnormal animal behavior; earthquakes; seismogenic electromagnetic emissions
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hayakawa, M. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake. Animals 2013, 3, 19-32.
Hayakawa M. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake. Animals. 2013; 3(1):19-32.
Hayakawa, Masashi. 2013. "Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake." Animals 3, no. 1: 19-32.