Animals 2013, 3(1), 19-32; doi:10.3390/ani3010019
Article

Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake

Received: 4 December 2012; in revised form: 24 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 January 2013 / Published: 10 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Anomalies Prior to Earthquakes)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Simple Summary: Possible electromagnetic effects on abnormal animal behavior before earthquakes.
Abstract: The former statistical properties summarized by Rikitake (1998) on unusual animal behavior before an earthquake (EQ) have first been presented by using two parameters (epicentral distance (D) of an anomaly and its precursor (or lead) time (T)). Three plots are utilized to characterize the unusual animal behavior; (i) EQ magnitude (M) versus D, (ii) log T versus M, and (iii) occurrence histogram of log T. These plots are compared with the corresponding plots for different seismo-electromagnetic effects (radio emissions in different frequency ranges, seismo-atmospheric and -ionospheric perturbations) extensively obtained during the last 15–20 years. From the results of comparisons in terms of three plots, it is likely that lower frequency (ULF (ultra-low-frequency, f ≤ 1 Hz) and ELF (extremely-low-frequency, f ≤ a few hundreds Hz)) electromagnetic emissions exhibit a very similar temporal evolution with that of abnormal animal behavior. It is also suggested that a quantity of field intensity multiplied by the persistent time (or duration) of noise would play the primary role in abnormal animal behavior before an EQ.
Keywords: abnormal animal behavior; earthquakes; seismogenic electromagnetic emissions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayakawa, M. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake. Animals 2013, 3, 19-32.

AMA Style

Hayakawa M. Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake. Animals. 2013; 3(1):19-32.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayakawa, Masashi. 2013. "Possible Electromagnetic Effects on Abnormal Animal Behavior Before an Earthquake." Animals 3, no. 1: 19-32.

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