Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Foods, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 120-281

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-13
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.)
Foods 2013, 2(2), 120-131; doi:10.3390/foods2020120
Received: 13 February 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2013 / Accepted: 5 March 2013 / Published: 25 March 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the [...] Read more.
Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR), covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva) from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina’s strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Energy Balance of a Typical U.S. Diet
Foods 2013, 2(2), 132-142; doi:10.3390/foods2020132
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 8 March 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 28 March 2013
PDF Full-text (613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Today’s agriculture provides an ever increasing population with sufficient quantities of food. During food production, processing, handling and transportation, an amount of energy is invested into the various products. An energy analysis of a typical American diet provides policy makers, farmers and [...] Read more.
Today’s agriculture provides an ever increasing population with sufficient quantities of food. During food production, processing, handling and transportation, an amount of energy is invested into the various products. An energy analysis of a typical American diet provides policy makers, farmers and the public with the necessary information to evaluate and make informed decisions as to how to improve the efficient use of energy. At the same time, an informed consumer may become energy conscious and be able to make dietary choices based on food energy balance. This paper studies the energy sequestered in a typical American diet as defined in Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). The amount of energy incorporated in this diet of 3628 kcal (15.18 MJ) per person and day to produce, transport, handle and process the foods is calculated and found to have approximately 39.92 GJ (9.54 Gcal) sequestered per person and year. It is shown that a diet in line with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendation of around 2100 kcal (8.79 MJ) per day person will result in a reduction of energy inputs by 42% on an annual basis. This reduction for the whole population of the United States of America (USA), corresponds to approximately 879 million barrels of oil equivalent (boe) savings. Energy efficiency for the food categories studied varies from 3.4% to 56.5% with an average of 21.7%. Food energy efficiency can be further improved in some food categories through either a reduction of energy inputs or yield increase. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mineral Analysis of Pine Nuts (Pinus spp.) Grown in New Zealand
Foods 2013, 2(2), 143-150; doi:10.3390/foods2020143
Received: 14 February 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 15 March 2013 / Published: 3 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don), [...] Read more.
Mineral analysis of seven Pinus species grown in different regions of New Zealand; Armand pine (Pinus armandii Franch), Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.), Mexican pinyon (Pinus cembroides Zucc. var. bicolor Little), Coulter pine (Pinus coulteri D. Don), Johann’s pine (Pinus johannis M.F. Robert), Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and Torrey pine (Pinus torreyana Parry ex Carrière), was carried out using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES) analysis. Fourteen different minerals (Al, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S and Zn) were identified in all seven varieties, except that no Al or Na was found in Pinus coulteri D. Don. New Zealand grown pine nuts are a good source of Cu, Mg, Mn, P and Zn, meeting or exceeding the recommended RDI for these minerals (based on an intake of 50 g nuts/day) while they supplied between 39%–89% of the New Zealand RDI for Fe. Compared to other commonly eaten tree-nuts New Zealand grown pine nuts are an excellent source of essential minerals. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow’s Milk Protein Allergy
Foods 2013, 2(2), 151-159; doi:10.3390/foods2020151
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (782 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, [...] Read more.
Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow’s milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow’s milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow’s milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow’s milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5–1.8 g/100 g), very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68–0.83 g/100 g). Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Development of Expanded Snack Product Made from Pumpkin Flour-Corn Grits: Effect of Extrusion Conditions and Formulations on Physical Characteristics and Microstructure
Foods 2013, 2(2), 160-169; doi:10.3390/foods2020160
Received: 30 December 2012 / Revised: 4 April 2013 / Accepted: 3 May 2013 / Published: 14 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has [...] Read more.
Pumpkin products confer natural sweetness, desirable flavours and β-carotene, a vitamin A precursor when added as ingredients to extruded snacks. Therefore, a potential use for dried pumpkin flour is as an ingredient in ready-to-eat (RTE) snack foods. Growth in this market has driven food manufacturers to produce a variety of new high value snack foods incorporating diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties of these foods. Ready-to-eat snacks were made by extruding corn grits with 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of pumpkin flour. Snacks made from 100% corn grits were used as control products for this work. The effect of formulation and screw speeds of 250 rpm and 350 rpm on torque and specific mechanical energy (SME, kWh/kg), physical characteristics (expansion ratio, bulk density, true density and hardness) and the microstructure of the snacks were studied. Increasing the screw speed resulted in a decrease of torque for all formulations. When pumpkin flour was added the specific mechanical energy (SME) decreased by approximately 45%. Increasing the percentage of pumpkin flour at the higher screw speed resulted in a harder texture for the extruded products. X-ray tomography of pumpkin flour-corn grit snacks showed that increased levels of pumpkin flour decreased both the bubble area and bubble size. However, no significant differences (p > 0.05) in bubble wall thickness were measured. By understanding the conditions during extrusion, desirable nutritional characteristics can be incorporated while maximizing expansion to make a product with low bulk density, a fine bubble structure and acceptable organoleptic properties. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices
Foods 2013, 2(2), 170-182; doi:10.3390/foods2020170
Received: 20 February 2013 / Revised: 4 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of different concentrations of sugar solution (hypertonic) (30%, 45% and 60% w/v) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) (0%, 1% and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied. In total, nine treatments with respect to concentrations of [...] Read more.
The effect of different concentrations of sugar solution (hypertonic) (30%, 45% and 60% w/v) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) (0%, 1% and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied. In total, nine treatments with respect to concentrations of hypertonic solution and coating layer were prepared to analyze their influence on the physical and chemical properties of freeze dried apple slices. It was observed that increase in the sugar solution concentration, decreased the moisture content of the apple slices significantly impacting its water activity, texture and sugar gain. Application of different concentrations of CMC coating had no significant effect on the properties of dried apple slices. A significant change was observed for color of CMC coated freeze dried apple slices pretreated with 60% sugar solution. Drying kinetics of pretreated apple slices were fitted by using two drying models, Newton’s and Page’s. Page’s model showed higher R-square and lower root mean square error (RSME) compared to Newton’s model. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Foods 2013, 2(2), 183-197; doi:10.3390/foods2020183
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 2 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (938 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% [...] Read more.
A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content. Full article
Open AccessArticle Food Quality Improvement of Soy Milk Made from Short-Time Germinated Soybeans
Foods 2013, 2(2), 198-212; doi:10.3390/foods2020198
Received: 28 January 2013 / Revised: 12 May 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (706 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to develop soy milk with improved food quality and to enhance the functional attributes by incorporating short-time germination into the processing. Changes in trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic acid content and total phenolic content (TPC) in [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to develop soy milk with improved food quality and to enhance the functional attributes by incorporating short-time germination into the processing. Changes in trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), phytic acid content and total phenolic content (TPC) in soy milk produced from soybeans germinated within 72 h were investigated to determine the optimum germination condition. Results from the present research showed significant (p < 0.05) improvement of TPC in cooked germinated soybean milk, while both the TIA and phytic acid content were decreased significantly (p < 0.05). In the subsequent evaluation on the quality attributes under the optimum germination condition, soy milk made from 28 h-germinated soybeans presented enhanced nutritional value and comparable physicochemical properties to conventional soy milk. The current approach provides a feasible and convenient way for soy-based product innovation in both household and industrial settings. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment and Use of Optical Oxygen Sensors as Tools to Assist in Optimal Product Component Selection for the Development of Packs of Ready-to-Eat Mixed Salads and for the Non-Destructive Monitoring of in-Pack Oxygen Levels Using Chilled Storage
Foods 2013, 2(2), 213-224; doi:10.3390/foods2020213
Received: 27 February 2013 / Revised: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Optical oxygen sensors were used to ascertain the level of oxygen consumed by individual salad leaves for optimised packaging of ready-to-eat (RTE) Italian salad mixes during refrigerated storage. Seven commonly found leaves in Italian salad mixes were individually assessed for oxygen utilisation [...] Read more.
Optical oxygen sensors were used to ascertain the level of oxygen consumed by individual salad leaves for optimised packaging of ready-to-eat (RTE) Italian salad mixes during refrigerated storage. Seven commonly found leaves in Italian salad mixes were individually assessed for oxygen utilisation in packs. Each leaf showed varying levels of respiration throughout storage. Using the information obtained, an experimental salad mix was formulated (termed Mix 3) which consisted of the four slowest respiring salad leaves—Escarole, Frisee, Red Batavia, Lollo Rosso. Mix 3 was then compared against two commercially available Italian salads; Mix 1 (Escarole, Frisee, Radicchio, Lollo Rosso) and Mix 2 (Cos, Frisee, Radicchio, Lollo Rosso). Optical sensors were used to non-destructively monitor oxygen usage in all mixes throughout storage. In addition to oxygen consumption, all three salad mixes were quality assessed in terms of microbial load and sensorial acceptability. In conclusion, Mix 3 was found to consume the least amount of oxygen over time, had the lowest microbial load and was most sensorially preferred (p < 0.05) in terms of overall appearance and acceptability. This study clearly shows the potential that oxygen sensors possess in terms of assisting in the optimised development of commercial RTE salad products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors and Food Safety)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread
Foods 2013, 2(2), 225-237; doi:10.3390/foods2020225
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 30 May 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using [...] Read more.
Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM) and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX) increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU)-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw) distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa) decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa) increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm). Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of the Culinary Treatment on the Quality of Lactarius deliciosus
Foods 2013, 2(2), 238-253; doi:10.3390/foods2020238
Received: 25 January 2013 / Revised: 7 April 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (713 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of culinary treatment on the nutritional value and quality of Lactarius deliciosus was established. Mushrooms: unblanched (I), blanched (II), and unblanched with onion and spices (III), were fried in oil for 10 min. Fried mushrooms were assessed before storage as [...] Read more.
The influence of culinary treatment on the nutritional value and quality of Lactarius deliciosus was established. Mushrooms: unblanched (I), blanched (II), and unblanched with onion and spices (III), were fried in oil for 10 min. Fried mushrooms were assessed before storage as well as after 48 h in storage at 20 °C, and after 48 and 96 h in storage at 4 °C. Frying increased the dry weight, protein, fat, ash, total carbohydrate, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content, as well as the caloric value of the mushrooms. In addition, frying decreased the antioxidant activity, color parameters (a*, h*), and texture. The most significant changes due to culinary treatment and storage were observed in type II product. Microbiological analysis of the samples after a 48 h storage period at 20 °C revealed the total viable count over 106 and contamination with lactic acid bacteria. Fried mushrooms stored at 4 °C for 96 h were free from microorganisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Updating Nutritional Data and Evaluation of Technological Parameters of Italian Milk
Foods 2013, 2(2), 254-273; doi:10.3390/foods2020254
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 8 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different technologically treated Italian milks (whole and semi-skimmed ultra-high temperature (UHT), pasteurized and microfiltered milk), collected from 2009 to 2012, were evaluated for nutritional and technological properties. No significant differences in calcium and sodium were detected (p > 0.05), while significant [...] Read more.
Different technologically treated Italian milks (whole and semi-skimmed ultra-high temperature (UHT), pasteurized and microfiltered milk), collected from 2009 to 2012, were evaluated for nutritional and technological properties. No significant differences in calcium and sodium were detected (p > 0.05), while significant differences were observed concerning phosphorus content, between whole and semi-skimmed milk, and lactose content, between pasteurized and UHT milk (p < 0.05). In UHT milk, lactose isomerization occurred, and lactulose (from 8.6 to 104.0 mg/100 g) was detected. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected for choline, a functional molecule, between whole (11.3–14.6 mg/100 g) and semi-skimmed milk (11.1–14.7 mg/100 g), but there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in processing milk (UHT vs. pasteurized milk and UHT vs. microfiltered milk). Among the unsaponifiable compounds, only 13 cis retinol and trans retinol showed differences in technologically treated milk (pasteurized vs. UHT milk and microfiltered vs. UHT milk; p < 0.05). In this research, the greater was the “severity” of milk treatment, the higher was the percent ratio 13 cis/trans retinol (DRI, degree of retinol isomerization). The degree of antioxidant protection parameter (DAP), useful to estimate the potential oxidative stability of fat in foods, was significantly different between whole and semi-skimmed milk (p < 0.05). Finally, the evaluation of color measurement of whole milk showed a good correlation between beta carotene and b* (r = 0.854) and between lactulose and a* (r = 0.862). Full article
Open AccessArticle Mathematical Modelling to Predict Oxidative Behaviour of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Food Processing Industry
Foods 2013, 2(2), 274-281; doi:10.3390/foods2020274
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
PDF Full-text (594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil [...] Read more.
Industrial processes that apply high temperatures in the presence of oxygen may compromise the stability of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) bioactive isomers. Statistical techniques are used in this study to model and predict, on a laboratory scale, the oxidative behaviour of oil with high CLA content, controlling the limiting factors of food processing. This modelling aims to estimate the impact of an industrial frying process (140 °C, 7 L/h air) on the oxidation of CLA oil for use as frying oil instead of sunflower oil. A factorial design was constructed within a temperature (80–200 °C) and air flow (7–20 L/h) range. Oil stability index (Rancimat method) was used as a measure of oxidation. Three-level full factorial design was used to obtain a quadratic model for CLA oil, enabling the oxidative behaviour to be predicted under predetermined process conditions (temperature and air flow). It is deduced that temperatures applied in food processes affect the oxidation of CLA to a greater extent than air flow. As a result, it is estimated that the oxidative stability of CLA oil is less resistant to industrial frying than sunflower oil. In conclusion, thanks to the mathematical model, a good choice of the appropriate industrial food process can be selected to avoid the oxidation of the bioactive isomers of CLA, ensuring its functionality in novel applications. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Foods Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
foods@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Foods
Back to Top