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Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread
Department of Food and Tourism Management, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, M14 6HR, UK
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Guelph Food Research Centre, Guelph N1G 5C9, Canada
Department of Wine, Food and Molecular Biosciences, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, New Zealand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 March 2013; in revised form: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 30 May 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Abstract: Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM) and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX) increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU)-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw) distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa) decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa) increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm).
Keywords: arabinoxylans; endoxylanase; functional bread; extractability; molecular weight
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Li, W.; Hu, H.; Wang, Q.; Brennan, C.S. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread. Foods 2013, 2, 225-237.
Li W, Hu H, Wang Q, Brennan CS. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread. Foods. 2013; 2(2):225-237.
Li, Weili; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qi; Brennan, Charles S. 2013. "Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread." Foods 2, no. 2: 225-237.