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Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices
Department of Bioresource Engineering, McGill University, 21111 Rue Lakeshore, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2013; in revised form: 4 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 21 May 2013
Abstract: The effect of different concentrations of sugar solution (hypertonic) (30%, 45% and 60% w/v) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) (0%, 1% and 2% w/v) coating on freeze drying of apple slices was studied. In total, nine treatments with respect to concentrations of hypertonic solution and coating layer were prepared to analyze their influence on the physical and chemical properties of freeze dried apple slices. It was observed that increase in the sugar solution concentration, decreased the moisture content of the apple slices significantly impacting its water activity, texture and sugar gain. Application of different concentrations of CMC coating had no significant effect on the properties of dried apple slices. A significant change was observed for color of CMC coated freeze dried apple slices pretreated with 60% sugar solution. Drying kinetics of pretreated apple slices were fitted by using two drying models, Newton’s and Page’s. Page’s model showed higher R-square and lower root mean square error (RSME) compared to Newton’s model.
Keywords: apple slices; osmo-dehydration; freeze drying; carboxyl methyl cellulose coating; drying kinetics
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MDPI and ACS Style
Rahimi, J.; Singh, A.; Adewale, P.O.; Adedeji, A.A.; Ngadi, M.O.; Raghavan, V. Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices. Foods 2013, 2, 170-182.
Rahimi J, Singh A, Adewale PO, Adedeji AA, Ngadi MO, Raghavan V. Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices. Foods. 2013; 2(2):170-182.
Rahimi, Jamshid; Singh, Ashutosh; Adewale, Peter O.; Adedeji, Akinbode A.; Ngadi, Michael O.; Raghavan, Vijaya. 2013. "Effect of Carboxylmethyl Cellulose Coating and Osmotic Dehydration on Freeze Drying Kinetics of Apple Slices." Foods 2, no. 2: 170-182.