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Plants, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-195

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Plants in 2013
Plants 2014, 3(1), 141-142; doi:10.3390/plants3010141
Received: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 26 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of Plants would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Identification of a Bioactive Compound against Adult T-cell Leukaemia from Bitter Gourd Seeds
Plants 2014, 3(1), 18-26; doi:10.3390/plants3010018
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 19 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (620 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In our previous report, an 80% ethanol bitter gourd seed extract (BGSE) was found to suppress proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines. The present study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds from BGSE specific against ATL. From the result of an
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In our previous report, an 80% ethanol bitter gourd seed extract (BGSE) was found to suppress proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines. The present study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds from BGSE specific against ATL. From the result of an HPLC-MS analysis, α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) was present in BGSE at 0.68% ± 0.0022% (±SD, n = 5). In the cell proliferation test, α-ESA potently suppressed proliferation of two ATL cell lines (ED and Su9T01; IC50 = 8.9 and 29.3 µM, respectively) more than several other octadecanoic acids. However, α-ESA moderately inhibited phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; IC50 = 31.0 µM). These results suggest that BGSE-derived α-ESA has potential as a functional food constituent because of its activity against ATL, particularly against ED cells. Moreover, α-ESA might be effective for the prevention of moderate adverse effects of ATL on normal T cells. Full article
Open AccessArticle Increasing Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-Bisphosphate Biosynthesis Affects Basal Signaling and Chloroplast Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana
Plants 2014, 3(1), 27-57; doi:10.3390/plants3010027
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 3 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One challenge in studying the second messenger inositol(1,4,5)-trisphosphate (InsP3) is that it is present in very low amounts and increases only transiently in response to stimuli. To identify events downstream of InsP3, we generated transgenic plants constitutively expressing the
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One challenge in studying the second messenger inositol(1,4,5)-trisphosphate (InsP3) is that it is present in very low amounts and increases only transiently in response to stimuli. To identify events downstream of InsP3, we generated transgenic plants constitutively expressing the high specific activity, human phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase Iα (HsPIPKIα). PIP5K is the enzyme that synthesizes phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2); this reaction is flux limiting in InsP3 biosynthesis in plants. Plasma membranes from transgenic Arabidopsis expressing HsPIPKIα had 2–3 fold higher PIP5K specific activity, and basal InsP3 levels in seedlings and leaves were >2-fold higher than wild type. Although there was no significant difference in photosynthetic electron transport, HsPIPKIα plants had significantly higher starch (2–4 fold) and 20% higher anthocyanin compared to controls. Starch content was higher both during the day and at the end of dark period. In addition, transcripts of genes involved in starch metabolism such as SEX1 (glucan water dikinase) and SEX4 (phosphoglucan phosphatase), DBE (debranching enzyme), MEX1 (maltose transporter), APL3 (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) and glucose-6-phosphate transporter (Glc6PT) were up-regulated in the HsPIPKIα plants. Our results reveal that increasing the phosphoinositide (PI) pathway affects chloroplast carbon metabolism and suggest that InsP3 is one component of an inter-organelle signaling network regulating chloroplast metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Light Signalling)
Open AccessArticle Auxin and Cell Wall Invertase Related Signaling during Rice Grain Development
Plants 2014, 3(1), 95-112; doi:10.3390/plants3010095
Received: 29 September 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 7 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (840 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis is required for grain-fill in maize and appears to be regulated by cell-wall invertase (CWIN) activity. OsYUC12 is one of three IAA biosynthesis genes we previously reported as expressed during early rice grain development, correlating with a large increase
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Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis is required for grain-fill in maize and appears to be regulated by cell-wall invertase (CWIN) activity. OsYUC12 is one of three IAA biosynthesis genes we previously reported as expressed during early rice grain development, correlating with a large increase in IAA content of the grain. This work aimed to investigate further the role of OsYUC12 and its relationship to CWIN activity and invertase inhibitors (INVINH). The analysis shows a brief peak of OsYUC12 expression early in endosperm development. Meta-analysis of microarray data, confirmed by quantitative expression analysis, revealed that OsYUC12 is coexpressed with OsIAA29, which encodes an unusual AUX/IAA transcription factor previously reported as poorly expressed. Maximum expression of OsYUC12 and OsIAA29 coincided with maximum CWIN activity, but also with a peak in INVINH expression. Unlike ZmYUC1, OsYUC12 expression is not reduced in the rice CWIN mutant, gif1. Several reports have investigated CWIN expression in rice grains but none has reported on expression of INVINH in this species. We show that rice has 54 genes encoding putative invertase/pectin methylesterase inhibitors, seven of which are expressed exclusively during grain development. Our results suggest a more complex relationship between IAA, CWIN, and INVINH than previously proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auxin Signaling, Transport, and Metabolism)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Regulation by Light of Chemotaxis to Nitrite during the Sexual Life Cycle in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Plants 2014, 3(1), 113-127; doi:10.3390/plants3010113
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 24 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (736 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nitrite plays an important role in the nitrogen metabolism of most cells, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We have shown that vegetative cells of C. reinhardtii are attracted by nitrite. The Nia1nit2 mutant with defects in genes encoding the nitrate reductase and regulatory
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Nitrite plays an important role in the nitrogen metabolism of most cells, including Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We have shown that vegetative cells of C. reinhardtii are attracted by nitrite. The Nia1nit2 mutant with defects in genes encoding the nitrate reductase and regulatory protein NIT2 respectively was found to exhibit normal chemotaxis to nitrite. The data suggest that chemotaxis events appear to be specific and independent of those involved in nitrate assimilation. Unlike vegetative cells and noncompetent pregametes, mature gametes did not show chemotaxis to nitrite. Just like gamete formation, the change in chemotaxis mode is controlled by the sequential action of two environmental cues, removal of nitrogen from the medium and light. Comparative analysis of wild-type and RNAi strains with reduced level of phototropin has indicated that switch-off of chemotaxis towards nitrite is dependent on phototropin. The studies revealed individual elements of the phototropin-dependent signal transduction pathway involved in the blue-light-controlled change in chemotaxis mode of C. reinhardtii during gamete formation: three protein kinases, one operating against signal flux and two that promote signal transduction. We have proposed a working model for the signaling pathway by which blue light controls chemotaxis towards attractants, which are nitrogen sources, during pregamete-to-gamete conversion of C. reinhardtii. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Light Signalling)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Light and Wounding on Jasmonates in Rice phyAphyC Mutants
Plants 2014, 3(1), 143-159; doi:10.3390/plants3010143
Received: 18 November 2013 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 3 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Jasmonates (JA) are lipid-derived plant hormones. They have been shown to be important regulators of photomorphogenesis, a developmental program in plants, which is activated by light through different red and blue light sensitive photoreceptors. In rice, inhibition of coleoptile growth by light is
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Jasmonates (JA) are lipid-derived plant hormones. They have been shown to be important regulators of photomorphogenesis, a developmental program in plants, which is activated by light through different red and blue light sensitive photoreceptors. In rice, inhibition of coleoptile growth by light is a central event in photomorphogenesis. This growth inhibition is impaired, when jasmonate biosynthesis is knocked out. Previously, we found that JASMONATE RESISTANT 1 (OsJAR1) transcripts were not induced in the phytochrome (phy) mutant phyAphyC. Therefore, in the current study we investigated the regulation of JA and its highly bioactive derivative (+)-7-iso-jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile), as well as the transcriptional regulation of several JA-dependent genes both in wild type and phyAphyC mutant. JA and JA-Ile levels increased in the mutant seedlings in response to blue light. However, in phyAphyC mutant leaves, which were continuously wounded, JA and JA-Ile levels were lower compared to those in the wild type. Hence, the mutation of phyA and phyC has differential effects on jasmonate levels depending on the tissue and developmental stage. Our results suggest that the contribution of JA-Ile to signaling during photomorphogenesis of rice is minor, as coleoptile phenotypes of phyAphyC mutants resemble those of jasmonate-deficient mutants despite the fact that induction by blue light leads to higher levels of JA-Ile compared to the wild type. We postulate that phyA and phyC could control the activity of specific enzymes metabolizing JA to active derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Light Signalling)
Open AccessArticle Accumulation of TIP2;2 Aquaporin during Dark Adaptation Is Partially PhyA Dependent in Roots of Arabidopsis Seedlings
Plants 2014, 3(1), 177-195; doi:10.3390/plants3010177
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 2 February 2014 / Accepted: 21 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Light regulates the expression and function of aquaporins, which are involved in water and solute transport. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mRNA levels of one of the aquaporin genes, TIP2;2, increase during dark adaptation and decrease under far-red light illumination, but the effects
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Light regulates the expression and function of aquaporins, which are involved in water and solute transport. In Arabidopsis thaliana, mRNA levels of one of the aquaporin genes, TIP2;2, increase during dark adaptation and decrease under far-red light illumination, but the effects of light at the protein level and on the mechanism of light regulation remain unknown. Numerous studies have described the light regulation of aquaporin genes, but none have identified the regulatory mechanisms behind this regulation via specific photoreceptor signaling. In this paper, we focus on the role of phytochrome A (phyA) signaling in the regulation of the TIP2;2 protein. We generated Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing a TIP2;2-GFP fusion protein driven by its own promoter, and showed several differences in TIP2;2 behavior between wild type and the phyA mutant. Fluorescence of TIP2;2-GFP protein in the endodermis of roots in the wild-type seedlings increased during dark adaptation, but not in the phyA mutant. The amount of the TIP2;2-GFP protein in wild-type seedlings decreased rapidly under far-red light illumination, and a delay in reduction of TIP2;2-GFP was observed in the phyA mutant. Our results imply that phyA, cooperating with other photoreceptors, modulates the level of TIP2;2 in Arabidopsis roots. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Light Signalling)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Regulation of Compound Leaf Development
Plants 2014, 3(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/plants3010001
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 30 November 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected
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Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaf Development)
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Open AccessReview Cellular Auxin Transport in Algae
Plants 2014, 3(1), 58-69; doi:10.3390/plants3010058
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of
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The phytohormone auxin is one of the main directors of plant growth and development. In higher plants, auxin is generated in apical plant parts and transported from cell-to-cell in a polar fashion. Auxin is present in all plant phyla, and the existence of polar auxin transport (PAT) is well established in land plants. Algae are a group of relatively simple, autotrophic, photosynthetic organisms that share many features with land plants. In particular, Charophyceae (a taxon of green algae) are closest ancestors of land plants. In the study of auxin function, transport and its evolution, the algae form an interesting research target. Recently, proof for polar auxin transport in Chara species was published and auxin related research in algae gained more attention. In this review we discuss auxin transport in algae with respect to land plants and suggest directions for future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Auxin Signaling, Transport, and Metabolism)
Open AccessReview From Plant Infectivity to Growth Patterns: The Role of Blue-Light Sensing in the Prokaryotic World
Plants 2014, 3(1), 70-94; doi:10.3390/plants3010070
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Flavin-based photoreceptor proteins of the LOV (Light, Oxygen, and Voltage) and BLUF (Blue Light sensing Using Flavins) superfamilies are ubiquitous among the three life domains and are essential blue-light sensing systems, not only in plants and algae, but also in prokaryotes. Here we
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Flavin-based photoreceptor proteins of the LOV (Light, Oxygen, and Voltage) and BLUF (Blue Light sensing Using Flavins) superfamilies are ubiquitous among the three life domains and are essential blue-light sensing systems, not only in plants and algae, but also in prokaryotes. Here we review their biological roles in the prokaryotic world and their evolution pathways. An unexpected large number of bacterial species possess flavin-based photosensors, amongst which are important human and plant pathogens. Still, few cases are reported where the activity of blue-light sensors could be correlated to infectivity and/or has been shown to be involved in the activation of specific genes, resulting in selective growth patterns. Metagenomics and bio-informatic analysis have only recently been initiated, but signatures are beginning to emerge that allow definition of a bona fide LOV or BLUF domain, aiming at better selection criteria for novel blue-light sensors. We also present here, for the first time, the phylogenetic tree for archaeal LOV domains that have reached a statistically significant number but have not at all been investigated thus far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Light Signalling)
Open AccessReview Annexin-Mediated Calcium Signalling in Plants
Plants 2014, 3(1), 128-140; doi:10.3390/plants3010128
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 26 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Calcium-permeable channels underpin elevations of free calcium that encode specific signals in stress adaptation, development and immunity. Identifying the genes encoding these channels remains a central goal of plant signalling research. Evidence now suggests that members of the plant annexin family function as
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Calcium-permeable channels underpin elevations of free calcium that encode specific signals in stress adaptation, development and immunity. Identifying the genes encoding these channels remains a central goal of plant signalling research. Evidence now suggests that members of the plant annexin family function as unconventional calcium-permeable channels, with roles in development and stress signalling. Arabidopsis annexin 1 mediates a plasma membrane calcium-permeable conductance in roots that is activated by reactive oxygen species. Recombinant annexin 1 forms a very similar conductance in planar lipid bilayers, indicating that this protein could facilitate the in vivo conductance directly. The annexin 1 mutant is impaired in salinity-induced calcium signalling. Protein–protein interactions, post-translational modification and dynamic association with membranes could all influence annexin-mediated calcium signalling and are reviewed here. The prospect of annexins playing roles in calcium signalling events in symbiosis and immunity are considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Plants)
Open AccessReview Functions of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Plant Innate Immunity
Plants 2014, 3(1), 160-176; doi:10.3390/plants3010160
Received: 3 September 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An increase of cytosolic Ca2+ is generated by diverse physiological stimuli and stresses, including pathogen attack. Plants have evolved two branches of the immune system to defend against pathogen infections. The primary innate immune response is triggered by the detection of evolutionarily
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An increase of cytosolic Ca2+ is generated by diverse physiological stimuli and stresses, including pathogen attack. Plants have evolved two branches of the immune system to defend against pathogen infections. The primary innate immune response is triggered by the detection of evolutionarily conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), which is called PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The second branch of plant innate immunity is triggered by the recognition of specific pathogen effector proteins and known as effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Calcium (Ca2+) signaling is essential in both plant PTI and ETI responses. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have emerged as important Ca2+ sensor proteins in transducing differential Ca2+ signatures, triggered by PAMPs or effectors and activating complex downstream responses. CDPKs directly transmit calcium signals by calcium binding to the elongation factor (EF)-hand domain at the C-terminus and substrate phosphorylation by the catalytic kinase domain at the N-terminus. Emerging evidence suggests that specific and overlapping CDPKs phosphorylate distinct substrates in PTI and ETI to regulate diverse plant immune responses, including production of reactive oxygen species, transcriptional reprogramming of immune genes, and the hypersensitive response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Plants)

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