Special Issue "Leaf Development"

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A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Naomi Ori (Website)

The Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Fax: +972 8 948 9322
Interests: tomato; leaf development; compound leaves

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Plant leaves are the main photosynthetic organs. While some aspects of leaf development are conserved among species, leaf development is extremely flexible and variable. Leaf development as well as the final shape and size of the leaf vary among species and within a given species. Leaf development is a dynamic process that responds to internal and external circumstances, including the developmental state of the plant, and the biotic and abiotic environment. This issue focuses on the mechanism underlying the variability in leaf size and shape within and among species, and the response of leaf development to internal and external cues. Reviews and research papers on these topics are invited.

Dr. Naomi Ori
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • leaf development
  • leaf size
  • leaf shape
  • leaf shape variability
  • developmental flexibility
  • developmental response to stress

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Abaxial Greening Phenotype in Hybrid Aspen
Plants 2013, 2(2), 279-301; doi:10.3390/plants2020279
Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 6 April 2013 / Accepted: 18 April 2013 / Published: 24 April 2013
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Abstract
The typical angiosperm leaf, as in Arabidopsis, is bifacial consisting of top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces readily distinguishable by the underlying cell type (palisade and spongy mesophyll, respectively). Species of the genus Populus have leaves that are either conventionally bifacial [...] Read more.
The typical angiosperm leaf, as in Arabidopsis, is bifacial consisting of top (adaxial) and bottom (abaxial) surfaces readily distinguishable by the underlying cell type (palisade and spongy mesophyll, respectively). Species of the genus Populus have leaves that are either conventionally bifacial or isobilateral. Isobilateral leaves have palisade mesophyll on the top and bottom of the leaf, making the two sides virtually indistinguishable at the macroscopic level. In poplars this has been termed the “abaxial greening” phenotype. Previous work has implicated ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) as an essential determinant of palisade mesophyll development. This gene, as well as other genes (84 in all) putatively involved in setting the dorsiventral axis of leaves, were investigated in two Populus species: black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and hybrid aspen (P. tremula x tremuloides), representative of each leaf type (bifacial and isobilateral, respectively). Poplar orthologs of AS1 have significantly higher expression in aspen leaf blade and lower in the petiole, suggestive of a potential role in the isobilateral leaf phenotype consistent with the previously observed phenotypes. Furthermore, an ABERRANT TESTA SHAPE (ATS) ortholog has significantly lower expression in aspen leaf tissue, also suggesting a possible contribution of this gene to abaxial greening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaf Development)
Open AccessArticle Combinations of Mutations Sufficient to Alter Arabidopsis Leaf Dissection
Plants 2013, 2(2), 230-247; doi:10.3390/plants2020230
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 27 March 2013 / Accepted: 1 April 2013 / Published: 8 April 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leaves show a wide range of shapes that results from the combinatory variations of two main parameters: the relative duration of the morphogenetic phase and the pattern of dissection of the leaf margin. To further understand the mechanisms controlling leaf shape, we [...] Read more.
Leaves show a wide range of shapes that results from the combinatory variations of two main parameters: the relative duration of the morphogenetic phase and the pattern of dissection of the leaf margin. To further understand the mechanisms controlling leaf shape, we have studied the interactions between several loci leading to increased dissection of the Arabidopsis leaf margins. Thus, we have used (i) mutants in which miR164 regulation of the CUC2 gene is impaired, (ii) plants overexpressing miR319/miRJAW that down-regulates multiple TCP genes and (iii) plants overexpressing the STIMPY/WOX9 gene. Through the analysis of their effects on leaf shape and KNOX I gene expression, we show that these loci act in different pathways. We show, in particular, that they have synergetic effects and that plants combining two or three of these loci show dramatic modifications of their leaf shapes. Finally, we present a working model for the role of these loci during leaf development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaf Development)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Regulation of Compound Leaf Development
Plants 2014, 3(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/plants3010001
Received: 16 September 2013 / Revised: 30 November 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 19 December 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or [...] Read more.
Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaf Development)
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Open AccessReview Understanding of Leaf Development—the Science of Complexity
Plants 2013, 2(3), 396-415; doi:10.3390/plants2030396
Received: 28 April 2013 / Revised: 7 May 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 25 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The leaf is the major organ involved in light perception and conversion of solar energy into organic carbon. In order to adapt to different natural habitats, plants have developed a variety of leaf forms, ranging from simple to compound, with various forms [...] Read more.
The leaf is the major organ involved in light perception and conversion of solar energy into organic carbon. In order to adapt to different natural habitats, plants have developed a variety of leaf forms, ranging from simple to compound, with various forms of dissection. Due to the enormous cellular complexity of leaves, understanding the mechanisms regulating development of these organs is difficult. In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the use of technically advanced imaging techniques and computational modeling in studies of leaf development. Additionally, molecular tools for manipulation of morphogenesis were successfully used for in planta verification of developmental models. Results of these interdisciplinary studies show that global growth patterns influencing final leaf form are generated by cooperative action of genetic, biochemical, and biomechanical inputs. This review summarizes recent progress in integrative studies on leaf development and illustrates how intrinsic features of leaves (including their cellular complexity) influence the choice of experimental approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaf Development)
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Open AccessReview TALE and Shape: How to Make a Leaf Different
Plants 2013, 2(2), 317-342; doi:10.3390/plants2020317
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 19 April 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (774 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Three Amino acid Loop Extension (TALE) proteins constitute an ancestral superclass of homeodomain transcription factors conserved in animals, plants and fungi. In plants they comprise two classes, KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox (KNOX) and BEL1-like homeobox (BLH or BELL, hereafter referred to as BLH), [...] Read more.
The Three Amino acid Loop Extension (TALE) proteins constitute an ancestral superclass of homeodomain transcription factors conserved in animals, plants and fungi. In plants they comprise two classes, KNOTTED1-LIKE homeobox (KNOX) and BEL1-like homeobox (BLH or BELL, hereafter referred to as BLH), which are involved in shoot apical meristem (SAM) function, as well as in the determination and morphological development of leaves, stems and inflorescences. Selective protein-protein interactions between KNOXs and BLHs affect heterodimer subcellular localization and target affinity. KNOXs exert their roles by maintaining a proper balance between undifferentiated and differentiated cell state through the modulation of multiple hormonal pathways. A pivotal function of KNOX in evolutionary diversification of leaf morphology has been assessed. In the SAM of both simple- and compound-leafed seed species, downregulation of most class 1 KNOX (KNOX1) genes marks the sites of leaf primordia initiation. However, KNOX1 expression is re-established during leaf primordia development of compound-leafed species to maintain transient indeterminacy and morphogenetic activity at the leaf margins. Despite the increasing knowledge available about KNOX1 protein function in plant development, a comprehensive view on their downstream effectors remains elusive. This review highlights the role of TALE proteins in leaf initiation and morphological plasticity with a focus on recent advances in the identification of downstream target genes and pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaf Development)
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Open AccessReview The Leaf Adaxial-Abaxial Boundary and Lamina Growth
Plants 2013, 2(2), 174-202; doi:10.3390/plants2020174
Received: 6 February 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2013 / Accepted: 14 March 2013 / Published: 26 March 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (886 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In multicellular organisms, boundaries have a role in preventing the intermingling of two different cell populations and in organizing the morphogenesis of organs and the entire organism. Plant leaves have two different cell populations, the adaxial (or upper) and abaxial (or lower) [...] Read more.
In multicellular organisms, boundaries have a role in preventing the intermingling of two different cell populations and in organizing the morphogenesis of organs and the entire organism. Plant leaves have two different cell populations, the adaxial (or upper) and abaxial (or lower) cell populations, and the boundary is considered to be important for lamina growth. At the boundary between the adaxial and abaxial epidermis, corresponding to the margin, margin-specific structures are developed and structurally separate the adaxial and abaxial epidermis from each other. The adaxial and abaxial cells are determined by the adaxial and abaxial regulatory genes (including transcription factors and small RNAs), respectively. Among many lamina-growth regulators identified by recent genetic analyses, it has been revealed that the phytohormone, auxin, and the WOX family transcription factors act at the adaxial-abaxial boundary downstream of the adaxial-abaxial pattern. Furthermore, mutant analyses of the WOX genes shed light on the role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary in preventing the mixing of the adaxial and abaxial features during lamina growth. In this review, we highlight the recent studies on the dual role of the adaxial-abaxial boundary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leaf Development)

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