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Plants 2014, 3(1), 70-94; doi:10.3390/plants3010070

From Plant Infectivity to Growth Patterns: The Role of Blue-Light Sensing in the Prokaryotic World

1,* , 1
1 Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Parma, v.le G.P. Usberti 7/a, Parma I-43124, Italy 2 Max Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, Mülheim 45470, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 15 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Light Signalling)
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Flavin-based photoreceptor proteins of the LOV (Light, Oxygen, and Voltage) and BLUF (Blue Light sensing Using Flavins) superfamilies are ubiquitous among the three life domains and are essential blue-light sensing systems, not only in plants and algae, but also in prokaryotes. Here we review their biological roles in the prokaryotic world and their evolution pathways. An unexpected large number of bacterial species possess flavin-based photosensors, amongst which are important human and plant pathogens. Still, few cases are reported where the activity of blue-light sensors could be correlated to infectivity and/or has been shown to be involved in the activation of specific genes, resulting in selective growth patterns. Metagenomics and bio-informatic analysis have only recently been initiated, but signatures are beginning to emerge that allow definition of a bona fide LOV or BLUF domain, aiming at better selection criteria for novel blue-light sensors. We also present here, for the first time, the phylogenetic tree for archaeal LOV domains that have reached a statistically significant number but have not at all been investigated thus far.
Keywords: LOV domain; BLUF domain; plant-pathogen interaction; phylogeny LOV domain; BLUF domain; plant-pathogen interaction; phylogeny
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Losi, A.; Mandalari, C.; Gärtner, W. From Plant Infectivity to Growth Patterns: The Role of Blue-Light Sensing in the Prokaryotic World. Plants 2014, 3, 70-94.

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