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Annexin-Mediated Calcium Signalling in Plants
Plants 2014, 3(1), 160-176; doi:10.3390/plants3010160

Functions of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Plant Innate Immunity

1,* , 2 and 3,*
Received: 3 September 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 February 2014 / Published: 5 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Plants)
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An increase of cytosolic Ca2+ is generated by diverse physiological stimuli and stresses, including pathogen attack. Plants have evolved two branches of the immune system to defend against pathogen infections. The primary innate immune response is triggered by the detection of evolutionarily conserved pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), which is called PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). The second branch of plant innate immunity is triggered by the recognition of specific pathogen effector proteins and known as effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Calcium (Ca2+) signaling is essential in both plant PTI and ETI responses. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have emerged as important Ca2+ sensor proteins in transducing differential Ca2+ signatures, triggered by PAMPs or effectors and activating complex downstream responses. CDPKs directly transmit calcium signals by calcium binding to the elongation factor (EF)-hand domain at the C-terminus and substrate phosphorylation by the catalytic kinase domain at the N-terminus. Emerging evidence suggests that specific and overlapping CDPKs phosphorylate distinct substrates in PTI and ETI to regulate diverse plant immune responses, including production of reactive oxygen species, transcriptional reprogramming of immune genes, and the hypersensitive response.
Keywords: calcium-dependent protein kinase; PAMP-triggered immunity; effector-triggered immunity; phosphorylation calcium-dependent protein kinase; PAMP-triggered immunity; effector-triggered immunity; phosphorylation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Gao, X.; Cox Jr., K.L.; He, P. Functions of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases in Plant Innate Immunity. Plants 2014, 3, 160-176.

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