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Plants 2014, 3(1), 18-26; doi:10.3390/plants3010018
Article

Identification of a Bioactive Compound against Adult T-cell Leukaemia from Bitter Gourd Seeds

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1 Department of Pharmaceutical Health Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University of Health and Welfare, 1714-1 Yoshino-machi, Nobeoka, Miyazaki 882-8508, Japan 2 Research Promotion Bureau for Collaboration of Regional Entities, Miyazaki Prefectural Industrial Support Foundation, 16500-2 Higashi-Kaminaka, Sadowara-cho, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 880-0303, Japan 3 Miyazaki Prefectural Food Research and Development Center, 16500-2 Higashi-Kaminaka, Sadowara-cho, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 880-0303, Japan 4 Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Korimoto, Kagoshima, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan 5 Miyazaki Agricultural Experiment Station, 5805 Shimonaka, Sadowara-cho, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 880-0212, Japan 6 Department of Biochemistry and Applied Biosciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuenkibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan 7 Department of Rheumatology, Infectious Diseases and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan 8 Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan 9 Section of Oncopathology and Regenerative Biology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara Kiyotake, Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 19 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
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Abstract

In our previous report, an 80% ethanol bitter gourd seed extract (BGSE) was found to suppress proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines. The present study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds from BGSE specific against ATL. From the result of an HPLC-MS analysis, α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) was present in BGSE at 0.68% ± 0.0022% (±SD, n = 5). In the cell proliferation test, α-ESA potently suppressed proliferation of two ATL cell lines (ED and Su9T01; IC50 = 8.9 and 29.3 µM, respectively) more than several other octadecanoic acids. However, α-ESA moderately inhibited phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; IC50 = 31.0 µM). These results suggest that BGSE-derived α-ESA has potential as a functional food constituent because of its activity against ATL, particularly against ED cells. Moreover, α-ESA might be effective for the prevention of moderate adverse effects of ATL on normal T cells.
Keywords: adult T-cell leukemia; bitter gourd seed extract; α-eleostearic acid; phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell adult T-cell leukemia; bitter gourd seed extract; α-eleostearic acid; phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Kai, H.; Akamatsu, E.; Torii, E.; Kodama, H.; Yukizaki, C.; Akagi, I.; Ino, H.; Sakakibara, Y.; Suiko, M.; Yamamoto, I.; Okayama, A.; Morishita, K.; Kataoka, H.; Matsuno, K. Identification of a Bioactive Compound against Adult T-cell Leukaemia from Bitter Gourd Seeds. Plants 2014, 3, 18-26.

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