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Appl. Sci., Volume 6, Issue 10 (October 2016)

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Open AccessArticle Distributed Optimal Economic Dispatch Based on Multi-Agent System Framework in Combined Heat and Power Systems
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100308
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2600 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel distributed method is presented to solve combined heat and power economic dispatch problem, which is formulated as a distributed coupled optimization problem. The optimization goal is achieved by establishing two modified consensus protocols with two corresponding feedback parts
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In this paper, a novel distributed method is presented to solve combined heat and power economic dispatch problem, which is formulated as a distributed coupled optimization problem. The optimization goal is achieved by establishing two modified consensus protocols with two corresponding feedback parts while satisfying the electrical and heat supply–demand balance. Moreover, an alternating iterative method is proposed to handle the heat-electrical coupling problem existed in the objective function and the feasible operating regions. In addition, the proposed distributed method is implemented by a multi-agent system framework, which only requires local information exchange among neighboring agents. Simulation results obtained on a 16-bus test system are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Cost-Effective Tracking Algorithm for Hypersonic Glide Vehicle Maneuver Based on Modified Aerodynamic Model
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100312
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1022 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV), a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM) as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing
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In order to defend the hypersonic glide vehicle (HGV), a cost-effective single-model tracking algorithm using Cubature Kalman filter (CKF) is proposed in this paper based on modified aerodynamic model (MAM) as process equation and radar measurement model as measurement equation. In the existing aerodynamic model, the two control variables attack angle and bank angle cannot be measured by the existing radar equipment and their control laws cannot be known by defenders. To establish the process equation, the MAM for HGV tracking is proposed by using additive white noise to model the rates of change of the two control variables. For the ease of comparison several multiple model algorithms based on CKF are presented, including interacting multiple model (IMM) algorithm, adaptive grid interacting multiple model (AGIMM) algorithm and hybrid grid multiple model (HGMM) algorithm. The performances of these algorithms are compared and analyzed according to the simulation results. The simulation results indicate that the proposed tracking algorithm based on modified aerodynamic model has the best tracking performance with the best accuracy and least computational cost among all tracking algorithms in this paper. The proposed algorithm is cost-effective for HGV tracking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Chaotic Secure Communication System Design Based on Iterative Learning Control Theory
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100311
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an application of Iterative Learning Control (ILC) theory to secure communication system design by using chaotic signals, where the logistic-map is employed as a source of chaos. Meanwhile, the ILC scheme is employed as a tool to encrypt and decrypt
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This paper presents an application of Iterative Learning Control (ILC) theory to secure communication system design by using chaotic signals, where the logistic-map is employed as a source of chaos. Meanwhile, the ILC scheme is employed as a tool to encrypt and decrypt a message. A set of numerical experiments is realized to evidence the performance of our system, including the noisy case on the channels of communication of the proposed scheme. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Human Action Recognition from Multiple Views Based on View-Invariant Feature Descriptor Using Support Vector Machines
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100309
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2111 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a novel feature descriptor for multiview human action recognition. This descriptor employs the region-based features extracted from the human silhouette. To achieve this, the human silhouette is divided into regions in a radial fashion with the interval of a certain
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This paper presents a novel feature descriptor for multiview human action recognition. This descriptor employs the region-based features extracted from the human silhouette. To achieve this, the human silhouette is divided into regions in a radial fashion with the interval of a certain degree, and then region-based geometrical and Hu-moments features are obtained from each radial bin to articulate the feature descriptor. A multiclass support vector machine classifier is used for action classification. The proposed approach is quite simple and achieves state-of-the-art results without compromising the efficiency of the recognition process. Our contribution is two-fold. Firstly, our approach achieves high recognition accuracy with simple silhouette-based representation. Secondly, the average testing time for our approach is 34 frames per second, which is much higher than the existing methods and shows its suitability for real-time applications. The extensive experiments on a well-known multiview IXMAS (INRIA Xmas Motion Acquisition Sequences) dataset confirmed the superior performance of our method as compared to similar state-of-the-art methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Activity Recognition)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Analysis of Jacket Substructure for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators under Extreme Environmental Conditions
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100307
Received: 12 April 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 17 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (15692 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to develop dynamic analysis technologies regarding the design of offshore wind turbine generators (OWTGs), a special project called Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) was conducted by IEA (International Energy Agency) in 2010. A similar project named INER-OC4 has been performed
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In order to develop dynamic analysis technologies regarding the design of offshore wind turbine generators (OWTGs), a special project called Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation (OC4) was conducted by IEA (International Energy Agency) in 2010. A similar project named INER-OC4 has been performed by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) to develop the OWTG technologies of Taiwan. Since the jacket substructure will be applied to Taiwan OWTGs before 2020, the INER-OC4 project has been devoted to the design and analysis of jacket support structure. In this work, the preliminary result of INER-OC4 is presented. A simplified analysis procedure for jacket support structure has been proposed. Both of the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) 5 MW OWTG FAST model and OC4 jacket substructure model have been built and analyzed under severe design load cases (DLCs) of IEC (International Electrotechnical commission) 61400-3. Simulation results of six severe DLCs are performed in this work and the results are in agreement with the requirements of API (American Petroleum Institute) and NORSOK (Norwegian Petroleum Industry) standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from the 2015 International Conference on Inventions)
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Open AccessArticle Sinusoidal Parameter Estimation Using Quadratic Interpolation around Power-Scaled Magnitude Spectrum Peaks
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100306
Received: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (714 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude) of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on
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The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude) of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Audio Signal Processing) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Performance Study of a Fluidic Hammer Controlled by an Output-Fed Bistable Fluidic Oscillator
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100305
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 13 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2679 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using a no-moving-component output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator to control fluid flows into a parallel path has been recognized for a considerable time, but as yet it is not so widely adopted as its obvious benefits would deserve. This may be attributed to the
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Using a no-moving-component output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator to control fluid flows into a parallel path has been recognized for a considerable time, but as yet it is not so widely adopted as its obvious benefits would deserve. This may be attributed to the encountered problems associated with its jet behavior, complicated by its loading characteristics. In order to investigate a typical case for the application of the output-fed fluidic oscillator, this paper elaborates on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation method for studying the performance of a fluidic hammer controlled by an output-fed bistable fluidic oscillator. Given that couple mechanism exists between the flow field in the fluidic oscillator and the impact body, dynamic mesh technique and a user-defined function written in C programming language were used to update the mesh in the simulations. In terms of the evaluation of performance, the focus is on the single-impact energy and output power of the fluidic hammer in this study, to investigate the effect of different parameters of the impact body on them. Experimental tests based on the noncontact measuring method were conducted to verify the simulation results, by which the accuracy and reliability of this CFD simulation method was proved. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report Modeling and Simulation of IGCC Considering Pressure and Flow Distribution of Gasifier
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100292
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2418 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a power generation technology which combines clean coal technology with a combined cycle. The system modeling is significant for design, operation and maintenance of the IGCC power plant. However, the previous IGCC modeling methods only contained
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The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a power generation technology which combines clean coal technology with a combined cycle. The system modeling is significant for design, operation and maintenance of the IGCC power plant. However, the previous IGCC modeling methods only contained a simplified compartment gasifier model, which is useful to consider the heat transfer and chemical reaction inside the gasifier, but cannot analyze the pressure and flow distribution. In order to obtain a more accurate model of IGCC system, the volume-resistance technique and modular modeling method are utilized in this paper. The new model can depict the dynamic response and distribution characteristics of the gasifier, as well as their influence on the IGCC system. The simulation result of the gasifier and IGCC system shows an obvious delay after considering pressure and flow distribution. Therefore, the proposed IGCC system model can obtain a more reliable result when considering the distribution characteristics of the gasifier. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Needle-Bonded Electromagnetic Shielding Thermally Insulating Nonwoven Composite Boards: Property Evaluations
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100303
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Complicated environmental problems inevitably arise when technology advances. One major environmental problem is the presence of electromagnetic radiation. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation can damage people’s health in many ways. Therefore, this study proposes producing composite boards with electromagnetic shielding effectiveness and thermal
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Complicated environmental problems inevitably arise when technology advances. One major environmental problem is the presence of electromagnetic radiation. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation can damage people’s health in many ways. Therefore, this study proposes producing composite boards with electromagnetic shielding effectiveness and thermal insulation by utilizing the structures and properties of materials. Different combinations of flame-retardant polyester fiber (FR fiber), recycled far-infrared polyester fiber (FI fiber), and 4D low-melting-point fibers (LM fiber) were made into flame-retardant and thermally insulating matrices. The matrices and carbon fiber (CF) woven fabric in a sandwich-structure were needle-punched in order to be tightly compact, and then circularly heat dried in order to have a heat set and reinforced structure. The test results indicate that Polyester (PET)/CF composite boards are mechanically strong and have thermal insulation and electromagnetic shielding effectiveness at a frequency between 0.6 MHz and 3 GHz. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Family of Quantum Sources for Improving Near Field Accuracy in Transducer Modeling by the Distributed Point Source Method
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 302; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100302
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
The distributed point source method, or DPSM, developed in the last decade has been used for solving various engineering problems—such as elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, electrostatic, and fluid flow problems. Based on a semi-analytical formulation, the DPSM solution is generally built by
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The distributed point source method, or DPSM, developed in the last decade has been used for solving various engineering problems—such as elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, electrostatic, and fluid flow problems. Based on a semi-analytical formulation, the DPSM solution is generally built by superimposing the point source solutions or Green’s functions. However, the DPSM solution can be also obtained by superimposing elemental solutions of volume sources having some source density called the equivalent source density (ESD). In earlier works mostly point sources were used. In this paper the DPSM formulation is modified to introduce a new kind of ESD, replacing the classical single point source by a family of point sources that are referred to as quantum sources. The proposed formulation with these quantum sources do not change the dimension of the global matrix to be inverted to solve the problem when compared with the classical point source-based DPSM formulation. To assess the performance of this new formulation, the ultrasonic field generated by a circular planer transducer was compared with the classical DPSM formulation and analytical solution. The results show a significant improvement in the near field computation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Identification of the Response of a Controlled Building Structure Subjected to Seismic Load by Using Nonlinear System Models
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100301
Received: 3 August 2016 / Revised: 2 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigates the prediction efficiency of nonlinear system-identification models, in assessing the behavior of a coupled structure-passive vibration controller. Two system-identification models, including Nonlinear AutoRegresive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), are used to model the behavior
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The present study investigates the prediction efficiency of nonlinear system-identification models, in assessing the behavior of a coupled structure-passive vibration controller. Two system-identification models, including Nonlinear AutoRegresive with eXogenous inputs (NARX) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), are used to model the behavior of an experimentally scaled three-story building incorporated with a tuned mass damper (TMD) subjected to seismic loads. The experimental study is performed to generate the input and output data sets for training and testing the designed models. The parameters of root-mean-squared error, mean absolute error and determination coefficient statistics are used to compare the performance of the aforementioned models. A TMD controller system works efficiently to mitigate the structural vibration. The results revealed that the NARX and ANFIS models could be used to identify the response of a controlled structure. The parameters of both two time-delays of the structure response and the seismic load were proven to be effective tools in identifying the performance of the models. A comparison based on the parametric evaluation of the two methods showed that the NARX model outperforms the ANFIS model in identifying structures response. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Sheet Metal Tapping Screw Fabrication Using a Finite Element Method
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100300
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 5 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The malformation of sheet metal tapping screw threads in the screw threading process increases the cost of screw threading dies and their maintenance. Die factories do not reveal their screw threading die design techniques, so production and maintenance processes are established by trial-and-error
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The malformation of sheet metal tapping screw threads in the screw threading process increases the cost of screw threading dies and their maintenance. Die factories do not reveal their screw threading die design techniques, so production and maintenance processes are established by trial-and-error or worker experience and passing down such techniques and documenting quality control is difficult. In this study, screw thread forming design and process analysis were carried out by combining computer-aided design software with computer-aided metal forming analysis software. Simulation results were verified in an actual forming process. The sheet metal tapping screw forging size error was less than 0.90%, except at a sharp angle, which was associated with an error of 3.075%, thereby demonstrating the accuracy of the simulated forming process. The numerical analysis process can be utilized to shorten forming development time; to reduce the number of die tests, and to improve product quality and die service life, reducing the cost of development and promoting the overall competitiveness of the company. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Fruit Fly-Optimized Kalman Filter Algorithm for Pushing Distance Estimation of a Hydraulic Powered Roof Support through Tuning Covariance
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100299
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
To measure the pushing distance of a hydraulic-powered roof support, and reduce the cost from a non-reusable displacement sensor embedded in pushing a hydraulic cylinder, an inertial sensor is used to measure the pushing distance, and a Kalman filter is applied to process
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To measure the pushing distance of a hydraulic-powered roof support, and reduce the cost from a non-reusable displacement sensor embedded in pushing a hydraulic cylinder, an inertial sensor is used to measure the pushing distance, and a Kalman filter is applied to process the inertial data. To obtain better estimation performance, an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (IFOA) is proposed to tune the parameters of the Kalman filter, processing noise covariance Q and observation noise covariance R. The key procedures of the proposed method, including state-space model, fitness function, and Kalman filter implementation, are presented. Finally, an artificial signal is utilized to verify the feasibility of the proposed method, and the tuning results of other algorithms, particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm (GA), basic FOA, and 3D-FOA are compared. The proposed method is also applied in the pushing distance estimation scenario. The simulation and application results prove the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bolt Looseness Detection Based on Piezoelectric Impedance Frequency Shift
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100298
Received: 8 September 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 15 October 2016
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (2652 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a piezoelectric impedance frequency shift method is developed to estimate the bolt preload for the detection of bolt looseness in engineering structures. An experimental device that allows the precision control of the axial preload force on a bolt is designed
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In this paper, a piezoelectric impedance frequency shift method is developed to estimate the bolt preload for the detection of bolt looseness in engineering structures. An experimental device that allows the precision control of the axial preload force on a bolt is designed and fabricated. A universal testing machine is used to preload accurately on the bolt in the experiments. Under different bolt preload conditions, the impedance analyzer measures the admittance (inverse of the impedance) signal of the PZT (Lead ZirconateTitanate) patches which are bonded on the bolt head. Firstly, a wide frequency band is swept to find a sensitive frequency band of the piezoelectric admittance with the imaginary part. Then in the sensitive frequency band, a specified peak frequency of the admittance signature is chosen to investigate the frequency shift with different bolt preloads. The relationship between the specified frequency shift and the bolt preload is established. The experimental results show that the specified peak frequency decreases as the bolt preload increases for both M16 and M12 bolts, and the frequency shift has a linear relationship with the preload on the bolt. The frequencies of the real and imaginary parts of the admittance signature have the same results. Therefore, the bolt preload can be determined by measuring the specified frequency shift and this method has a good application prospect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Benefits and Impact of Joint Metric of AOA/RSS/TOF on Indoor Localization Error
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100296
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
PDF Full-text (2027 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emerging techniques in the Fifth Generation (5G) communication system, like the millimeter-Wave (mmWave) and massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), make it possible to measure the Angle-Of-arrival (AOA), Receive Signal Strength (RSS) and Time-Of-flight (TOF) by using various types of mobile devices.
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The emerging techniques in the Fifth Generation (5G) communication system, like the millimeter-Wave (mmWave) and massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO), make it possible to measure the Angle-Of-arrival (AOA), Receive Signal Strength (RSS) and Time-Of-flight (TOF) by using various types of mobile devices. At the same time, there is always significant interest in the high-precision localization techniques based on the joint metric of AOA/RSS/TOF, which enable one to overcome the drawback of the single metric-based localization. Motivated by this concern, we rely on the Cramer–Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) to analyze the localization errors of RSS/AOA, RSS/TOF, AOA/TOF and the Joint Metric of AOA/RSS/TOF (JMART)-based localization. The error bounds derived in this paper can be selected as the benchmarking results to evaluate the indoor localization performance. Finally, extensive simulations are conducted to support our claim. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bio-Inspired PVDF-Based, Mouse Whisker Mimicking, Tactile Sensor
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100297
Received: 24 August 2016 / Revised: 25 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1077 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The design and fabrication of a Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based, mouse (or rodent) whisker mimicking, tactile sensor is presented. Unlike previous designs reported in the literature, this sensor mimics the mouse whisker not only mechanically, but it also makes macro movements just like
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The design and fabrication of a Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) based, mouse (or rodent) whisker mimicking, tactile sensor is presented. Unlike previous designs reported in the literature, this sensor mimics the mouse whisker not only mechanically, but it also makes macro movements just like a real mouse whisker in a natural environment. We have developed a mathematical model and performed finite element analysis using COMSOL, in order to optimise the whisker to have the same natural frequency as that of a biological whisker. Similarly, we have developed a control system that enables the whisker mimicking sensor to vibrate at variable frequencies and conducted practical experiments to validate the response of the sensor. The natural frequency of the whisker can be designed anywhere between 35 and 110 Hz, the same as a biological whisker, by choosing different materials and physical dimensions. The control system of this sensor enables the whisker to vibrate between 5 and 236 Hz. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of an Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic/Microwave-Assisted Simultaneous Distillation and Extraction Method for Separation of Camptothecin, 10-Hydroxycamptothecin, Vincoside-Lactam, and Essential Oils from the Fruits of Camptotheca acuminata Decne
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100293
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 7 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 October 2016 / Published: 13 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2654 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An ionic liquid-based ultrasonic/microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation and extraction (IL-UMASDE) method for isolating camptothecin (CPT), 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), vincoside-lactam (VCS-LT), and essential oils (EOs) from Camptotheca acuminata Decne fruits was developed. The important parameters were optimized using single-factor and central composite design experiments. The optimum
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An ionic liquid-based ultrasonic/microwave-assisted simultaneous distillation and extraction (IL-UMASDE) method for isolating camptothecin (CPT), 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), vincoside-lactam (VCS-LT), and essential oils (EOs) from Camptotheca acuminata Decne fruits was developed. The important parameters were optimized using single-factor and central composite design experiments. The optimum conditions were 0.75 M 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C8mim]Br) as the extraction solvent, a liquid–solid ratio of 13.7 mL/g, an extraction time of 33.2 min, a microwave power of 582 W, and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W. The yields of CPT, HCPT, and VCS-LT obtained under the optimum conditions were 2.463, 0.164, and 0.297 mg/g, respectively; these are 1.08-, 1.12-, and 1.04-fold higher, respectively, than those obtained by conventional 55% ethanol heat reflux extraction (HRE). The extraction time for the equilibrium yields of CPT, HCPT and VCS-LT using IL-UMASDE was 33.6%, 58.5%, 63.1%, and 66.8%, respectively, less than the corresponding times using IL-MASDE, IL-ultrasonic-assisted extraction (IL-UAE), 55% ethanol UAE and 55% ethanol HRE. The yield of EOs obtained using IL-UMASDE was 0.793 mg/g, i.e., 1.31-fold higher than that obtained by conventional hydrodistillation extraction (HDE). The components of the EOs obtained using IL-UMASDE and HDE were similar. The extraction time for the equilibrium yields of EOs using IL-UMASDE is 33.6%, 58.5%, 52.6%, and 72.3% lower than those for IL-MASDE, water-UMASDE, water-MASDE, and HDE, respectively. Compared with other extraction methods, IL-UMASDE gave the highest yields of CPT, HCPT, VCS-LT, and EOs and also had the shortest extraction time. IL-UMASDE is a potential green and highly efficient technique for the extraction of CPT, HCPT, VCS-LT, and EOs from Camptotheca acuminata Decne fruits. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Modified Thermal Treatment Method for the Up-Scalable Synthesis of Size-Controlled Nanocrystalline Titania
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100295
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 30 September 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Considering the increasing demand for titania nanoparticles with controlled quality for various applications, the present work reports the up-scalable synthesis of size-controlled titanium dioxide nanocrystals with a simple and convenient thermal treatment route. Titanium dioxide nanocrystals with tetragonal structure were synthesized directly from
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Considering the increasing demand for titania nanoparticles with controlled quality for various applications, the present work reports the up-scalable synthesis of size-controlled titanium dioxide nanocrystals with a simple and convenient thermal treatment route. Titanium dioxide nanocrystals with tetragonal structure were synthesized directly from an aqueous solution containing titanium (IV) isopropoxide as the main reactant, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as the capping agent, and deionized water as a solvent. With the elimination of the drying process in a thermal treatment method, an attempt was made to decrease the synthesis time. The mixture directly underwent calcination to form titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanocrystalline powder, which was confirmed by FT-IR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The control over the size and optical properties of nanocrystals was achieved via variation in calcination temperatures. The obtained average sizes from XRD spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed exponential variation with increasing calcination temperature. The optical properties showed a decrease in the band gap energy with increasing calcination temperature due to the enlargement of the nanoparticle size. These results prove that direct calcination of reactant solution is a convenient thermal treatment route for the potential large-scale production of size-controlled Titania nanoparticles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences)
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Open AccessArticle Acoustic-Based Cutting Pattern Recognition for Shearer through Fuzzy C-Means and a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100294
Received: 1 August 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (9505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the conventional cutting pattern recognition methods for shearer are huge in size, have low recognition reliability and an inconvenient contacting measurement method, a fast and reliable coal-rock cutting pattern recognition system is always a baffling problem worldwide. However, the recognition rate has
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As the conventional cutting pattern recognition methods for shearer are huge in size, have low recognition reliability and an inconvenient contacting measurement method, a fast and reliable coal-rock cutting pattern recognition system is always a baffling problem worldwide. However, the recognition rate has a direct relation with the outputs of coal mining and the safety quality of staff. In this paper, a novel cutting pattern identification method through the cutting acoustic signal of the shearer is proposed. The signal is clustering by fuzzy C-means (FCM) and a hybrid optimization algorithm, combining the fruit fly and genetic optimization algorithm (FGOA). Firstly, an industrial microphone is installed on the shearer and the acoustic signal is collected as the source signal due to its obvious advantages of compact size, non-contact measurement and ease of remote transmission. The original sound is decomposed by multi-resolution wavelet packet transform (WPT), and the normalized energy of each node is extracted as a feature vector. Then, FGOA, by introducing a genetic proportion coefficient into the basic fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), is applied to overcome the disadvantages of being time-consuming and sensitivity to initial centroids of the traditional FCM. A simulation example, with the accuracy of 95%, and some comparisons prove the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed scheme. Finally, an industrial test validates the practical effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Acoustics)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamical Systems Properties of a Mathematical Model for the Treatment of CML
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100291
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract
A mathematical model for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) through a combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunomodulatory therapies is analyzed as a dynamical system for the case of constant drug concentrations. Equilibria and their stability are determined and it is
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A mathematical model for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) through a combination of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunomodulatory therapies is analyzed as a dynamical system for the case of constant drug concentrations. Equilibria and their stability are determined and it is shown that, depending on the parameter values, the model exhibits a variety of behaviors which resemble the chronic, accelerated and blast phases typical of the disease. This work provides qualitative insights into the system which should be useful for understanding the interaction between CML and the therapies considered here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamical Models of Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle Design of a Solenoid Actuator for a Cylinder Valve in a Fuel Cell Vehicle
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100288
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 27 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
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Abstract
Green vehicles include electric vehicles, natural gas vehicles, fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and vehicles running on fuel such as a biodiesel or an ethanol blend. An FCV is equipped with a cylinder valve installed in an ultra-high pressure vessel to control the hydrogen
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Green vehicles include electric vehicles, natural gas vehicles, fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and vehicles running on fuel such as a biodiesel or an ethanol blend. An FCV is equipped with a cylinder valve installed in an ultra-high pressure vessel to control the hydrogen flow. For this purpose, an optimum design of the solenoid actuator is necessary to ensure reliability when driving an FCV. In this study, an electromagnetic field analysis for ensuring reliable operation of the solenoid actuator was conducted by using Maxwell V15. The electromagnetic field analysis was performed by magneto static technique, according to the distance between magnetic poles, in order to predict the attraction force. Finally, the attraction force was validated through comparison between the Maxwell results and measurement results. From the results, the error of attraction force ranged from 2.33 to 3.85 N at testing conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Angiogenic and Osteogenic Coupling Effects of Deferoxamine-Loaded Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoparticles
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100290
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
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Abstract
Angiogenesis and osteogenesis coupling processes are essential for bone regeneration, and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) along with endothelial cells (ECs) are crucial participants. Deferoxamine (DFO), a hypoxia-mimetic agent, could activate the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α signaling pathway and trigger angiogenic and osteogenic
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Angiogenesis and osteogenesis coupling processes are essential for bone regeneration, and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) along with endothelial cells (ECs) are crucial participants. Deferoxamine (DFO), a hypoxia-mimetic agent, could activate the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α signaling pathway and trigger angiogenic and osteogenic effects in these cells. However, the lifetime of DFO is very short, thus a suitable delivery system is urgently needed. In this study, we encapsulated DFO in Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (DFO-loaded NPs) to realize its long-term angiogenic and osteogenic bioactivities. Surface morphology, size, size distribution of DFO-loaded NPs as well as DFO loading content (LC), encapsulation efficiency (EE) and release profile were systematically evaluated. When hBMSCs were exposed to the vehicle with DFO concentration of 100 μM, cells showed good viability, increased HIF-1α expression and enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. The transcriptional levels of the angiogenic and osteogenic genes were also upregulated. Moreover, promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity further confirmed better osteogenic differentiation. Similarly, angiogenic activity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were enhanced after the addition of DFO-loaded NPs, evidenced by increased angiogenic genes expressions and tube formation. Taken together, DFO-loaded NPs could provide a sustained supply of DFO, with its angiogenic and osteogenic coupling effects preserved, which extends the potential of this system for bone defect repair. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wear Characteristics of Metallic Counterparts under Elliptical-Locus Ultrasonic Vibration
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100289
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 28 September 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
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Abstract
Wear behavior is influential to improve friction drive and wear lifespan of actuators or motors, which work at an elliptical locus vibration. Sliding wear tests of metallic friction pairs are conducted by a laboratory rig of ultrasonic vibration. Surfaces of the different metallic
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Wear behavior is influential to improve friction drive and wear lifespan of actuators or motors, which work at an elliptical locus vibration. Sliding wear tests of metallic friction pairs are conducted by a laboratory rig of ultrasonic vibration. Surfaces of the different metallic sliders are characterized using surface roughness, Abbott curves and fractal dimension. Results show that surface roughness is reduced to varying degrees in the metallic sliders due to ultrasonic polishing and/or micro-rolling effect. Variations in the fractal dimensions of contact surfaces are consistent with that of surface roughness. Wear traces demonstrate that plastic deformation and cracking are the primary failure modes. Where the driving tip on the slider is in intermittent contact followed by impact effects, ripples of 3~5 μm traces suggest the occurrence of fretting in duralumin sliders. Nodular cast iron showed a favorable performance during running of ultrasonic motor, exhibiting a stable output performance and durable wear life. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Three-Phase PV CHB Inverter for a Distributed Power Generation System
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100287
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
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Abstract
This work deals with the design of a three-phase grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) cascade H-bridge inverter for distributed power conversion. The power balancing among the phases must be properly addressed. In fact, an intra-phase power imbalance—arising from uneven irradiance and temperature conditions—generates a per-phase
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This work deals with the design of a three-phase grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) cascade H-bridge inverter for distributed power conversion. The power balancing among the phases must be properly addressed. In fact, an intra-phase power imbalance—arising from uneven irradiance and temperature conditions—generates a per-phase power imbalance. This latter can be compensated by the injection of a proper zero-sequence voltage, while the intra-phase balance is ensured by means of a hybrid modulation method which is able to guarantee the handling of unequal DC (Direct Current) sources, stable circuit operation, and maximization of PV power production. The digital controller is developed and tested in Matlab/Simulink environment integrated with XSG (Xilinx System Generator), thus allowing an easy transfer on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platform and accurately describing the behavior of a real hardware implementation. Thus, numerical results have been considered to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Grid-Connected Renewable Generation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Classical Optimization of Cellulase and Xylanase Production by a Marine Streptomyces Species
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100286
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 9 October 2016
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Abstract
Cellulase and xylanase are in high demand for application in several industrial processes, consequently necessitating the bioprospecting and manipulation of microbes for novel and greater enzyme productivity. This study reports on the optimal conditions for cellulase and xylanase production by a marine bacterial
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Cellulase and xylanase are in high demand for application in several industrial processes, consequently necessitating the bioprospecting and manipulation of microbes for novel and greater enzyme productivity. This study reports on the optimal conditions for cellulase and xylanase production by a marine bacterial isolate from Nahoon beach sediment, via the classical process of one variable per time. Furthermore, the inducing effect of mono- and polysaccharides on enzyme production was investigated. The 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis clearly assigned the isolate to the genus Streptomyces, and was deposited at the GenBank under the accession number KU171373. Cellulase and xylanase production was optimal at the following conditions: pH 6 and 8, incubation temperature of 40 and 35 °C, and agitation speed of 100 and 150 rpm, respectively. Under optimum conditions, 0.26 U/mL and 18.54 U/mL activities were attained at 60 and 48 h with specific productivity of 205 and 7417 U/g for cellulase and xylanase, respectively. Xylanase production was induced by the entire mono- and polysaccharides tested, while cellulase production was induced by some. The results from this study signify the resourcefulness of the Streptomyces strain for production of cellulase and xylanase of industrial importance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Prosumer-Based Energy Sharing and Management (PESM) Approach for Cooperative Demand Side Management (DSM) in Smart Grid
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100275
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 15 September 2016 / Published: 8 October 2016
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Abstract
Increasing population and modern lifestyle have raised energy demands globally. Demand Side Management (DSM) is one important tool used to manage energy demands. It employs an advanced power infrastructure along with bi-directional information flow among utilities and users in order to achieve a
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Increasing population and modern lifestyle have raised energy demands globally. Demand Side Management (DSM) is one important tool used to manage energy demands. It employs an advanced power infrastructure along with bi-directional information flow among utilities and users in order to achieve a balanced load curve and minimize demand-supply mismatch. Traditionally, this involves shifting the electricity demand from peak hours to other times of the day in an optimized manner. Multiple users equipped with renewable resources work in coordination with each other in order to achieve mutually beneficial energy management. This, in turn, has generated the concept of cooperative DSM. Such users, called prosumers, consume and produce energy using renewable resources (solar, wind etc.). Prosumers with surplus energy sell to the grid as well as to other consumers. In this paper, a novel Prosumer-based Energy Sharing and Management (PESM) scheme for cooperative DSM has been proposed. A simulation model has been developed for testing the proposed method. Different variations of the proposed methodology have been experimented with different criteria. The results show that the proposed energy sharing scheme achieves DSM purposes in a useful manner. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Coupling Agents on the Structure and Electrical Properties of PZT-Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) Composites
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100282
Received: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 3 October 2016
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Abstract
Piezoelectricceramictransducer(PZT)-Poly(vinylidenefluoride)compositeswereprepared by the hot-pressing method. Before addition, PZT particles were firstly modified with two different coupling agents. The micromorphology, microstructure, dielectric properties, and piezoelectric propertiesofthecompositeswerecharacterizedandinvestigated. ResultsindicatedthatPZTparticles were homogeneously dispersed in the poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix by the addition of coupling agents. The
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Piezoelectricceramictransducer(PZT)-Poly(vinylidenefluoride)compositeswereprepared by the hot-pressing method. Before addition, PZT particles were firstly modified with two different coupling agents. The micromorphology, microstructure, dielectric properties, and piezoelectric propertiesofthecompositeswerecharacterizedandinvestigated. ResultsindicatedthatPZTparticles were homogeneously dispersed in the poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix by the addition of coupling agents. The electric properties of PZT-PVDF composites with NDZ-101 were the best. Especially when the volume ratio of the titanate coupling agent NDZ-101 was 1%, the piezoelectric strain constant d33 of PZT-PVDF composites reached maximum value 19.23 pC/N; its relative dielectric constant εr was 67.45; at the same time its dielectric loss tan δ was 0.0766. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Real-Time Vehicle Energy Management System Based on Optimized Distribution of Electrical Load Power
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100285
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 26 September 2016 / Published: 2 October 2016
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Abstract
As a result of severe environmental pressure and stringent government regulations, refined energy management for vehicles has become inevitable. To improve vehicle fuel economy, this paper presents a bus-based energy management system for the electrical system of internal combustion engine vehicles. Both the
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As a result of severe environmental pressure and stringent government regulations, refined energy management for vehicles has become inevitable. To improve vehicle fuel economy, this paper presents a bus-based energy management system for the electrical system of internal combustion engine vehicles. Both the model of an intelligent alternator and the model of a lead-acid battery are discussed. According to these models, the energy management for a vehicular electrical system is formulated as a global optimal control problem which aims to minimize fuel consumption. Pontryagin’s minimum principle is applied to solve the optimal control problem to realize a real-time control strategy for electrical energy management in vehicles. The control strategy can change the output of the intelligent alternator and the battery with the changes of electrical load and driving conditions in real-time. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared to the traditional open-loop control strategy, the proposed control strategy for vehicle energy management can effectively reduce fuel consumption and the fuel consumption per 100 km is decreased by approximately 1.7%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Control Strategy of an Impulse Turbine for an Oscillating Water Column-Wave Energy Converter in Time-Domain Using Lyapunov Stability Method
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100281
Received: 26 July 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 2 October 2016
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Abstract
We present two control strategies for an oscillating water column-wave energy converter (OWC-WEC) in the time domain. We consider a fixed OWC-WEC on the open sea with an impulse turbine module. This system mainly consists of a chamber, turbine and electric generator. For
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We present two control strategies for an oscillating water column-wave energy converter (OWC-WEC) in the time domain. We consider a fixed OWC-WEC on the open sea with an impulse turbine module. This system mainly consists of a chamber, turbine and electric generator. For the time domain analysis, all of the conversion stages considering mutualities among them should be analyzed based on the Newtonian mechanics. According to the analysis of Newtonian mechanics, the hydrodynamics of wave energy absorption in the chamber and the turbine aerodynamic performance are directly coupled and share the internal air pressure term via the incompressible air assumption. The turbine aerodynamics and the dynamics of the electric generator are connected by torque load through the rotor shaft, which depends on an electric terminal load that acts as a control input. The proposed control strategies are an instant maximum turbine efficiency tracking control and a constant angular velocity of the turbine rotor control methods. Both are derived by Lyapunov stability analysis. Numerical simulations are carried out under irregular waves with various heights and periods in the time domain, and the results with the controllers are analyzed. We then compare these results with simulations carried out in the absence of the control strategy in order to prove the performance of the controllers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancing Grid-Connected Renewable Generation Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Electronic Band Structure of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides from Ab Initio and Slater–Koster Tight-Binding Model
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/app6100284
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 1 October 2016
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Abstract
Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides present a complex electronic band structure with a rich orbital contribution to their valence and conduction bands. The possibility to consider the electronic states from a tight-binding model is highly useful for the calculation of many physical properties, for
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Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides present a complex electronic band structure with a rich orbital contribution to their valence and conduction bands. The possibility to consider the electronic states from a tight-binding model is highly useful for the calculation of many physical properties, for which first principle calculations are more demanding in computational terms when having a large number of atoms. Here, we present a set of Slater–Koster parameters for a tight-binding model that accurately reproduce the structure and the orbital character of the valence and conduction bands of single layer MX 2 , where M = Mo, W and X = S, Se. The fit of the analytical tight-binding Hamiltonian is done based on band structure from ab initio calculations. The model is used to calculate the optical conductivity of the different compounds from the Kubo formula. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides)
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