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Water, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2010), Pages 321-710

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Attribution of Precipitation Changes on a Regional Scale by Neural Network Modeling: A Case Study
Water 2010, 2(3), 321-332; doi:10.3390/w2030321
Received: 24 May 2010 / Revised: 19 June 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 6 July 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On a regional scale, climate variability masks any direct link between external forcings and precipitation values. Thus, the problem of attribution of precipitation changes splits into two distinct steps: understanding how forcings influence circulation patterns and finding relationships between these patterns and [...] Read more.
On a regional scale, climate variability masks any direct link between external forcings and precipitation values. Thus, the problem of attribution of precipitation changes splits into two distinct steps: understanding how forcings influence circulation patterns and finding relationships between these patterns and the behavior of precipitation. Here, we deal with this second step, by analyzing data about eight circulation indices and their influence on precipitation anomalies in an extended Italian Alpine region. The methods used are bivariate nonlinear analysis and neural network modeling. We identify the most influential circulation patterns in each season and work out neural network models that are able to substantially describe the climate variability of precipitation at this regional scale. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimating Green Water Footprints in a Temperate Environment
Water 2010, 2(3), 351-362; doi:10.3390/w2030351
Received: 9 June 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 12 July 2010 / Published: 14 July 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The “green” water footprint (GWF) of a product is often considered less important than the “blue” water footprint (BWF) as “green” water generally has a low, or even negligible, opportunity cost. However, when considering food, fibre and tree products, is not only [...] Read more.
The “green” water footprint (GWF) of a product is often considered less important than the “blue” water footprint (BWF) as “green” water generally has a low, or even negligible, opportunity cost. However, when considering food, fibre and tree products, is not only a useful indicator of the total appropriation of a natural resource, but from a methodological perspective, blue water footprints are frequently estimated as the residual after green water is subtracted from total crop water use. In most published studies, green water use (ETgreen) has been estimated from the FAO CROPWAT model using the USDA method for effective rainfall. In this study, four methods for the estimation of the ETgreen of pasture were compared. Two were based on effective rainfall estimated from monthly rainfall and potential evapotranspiration, and two were based on a simulated water balance using long-term daily, or average monthly, weather data from 11 stations in England. The results show that the effective rainfall methods significantly underestimate the annual ETgreen in all cases, as they do not adequately account for the depletion of stored soil water during the summer. A simplified model, based on annual rainfall and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) has been tested and used to map the average annual ETgreen of pasture in England. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Occurrence of Cold Spells in the Alps Related to ClimateChange
Water 2010, 2(3), 363-380; doi:10.3390/w2030363
Received: 23 June 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 27 July 2010 / Published: 2 August 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change is not only a likely prospect for the end of this century, but it is already occurring. Part of the changes will include global warming and increasing temperature variability, both at global and regional scales. This increased variability was investigated [...] Read more.
Climate change is not only a likely prospect for the end of this century, but it is already occurring. Part of the changes will include global warming and increasing temperature variability, both at global and regional scales. This increased variability was investigated in this paper from the point of view of the occurrence of cold spells in the Alps in the future climate (2071–2100), compared with the present climate (1961–1990). For this purpose, a regionalisation of the climate change effects was performed within the Alps. To avoid possible errors in the estimate of the 2m air temperature, the analysis was performed on the soil surface temperature. To get realistic values for this variable, a land surface scheme, UTOPIA, has been run on the selected domain, using the output of the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) simulations as the driving force. The results show that, in general, the number of cold breaks is decreasing over the Alps, due to the temperature increment. However, there are certain zones where the behaviour is more complicated. The analysis of the model output also allowed a relationship to be found between the number of cold breaks and their duration. The significance of these results over the whole area was assessed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrient Content at the Sediment-Water Interface of Tile-Fed Agricultural Drainage Ditches
Water 2010, 2(3), 411-428; doi:10.3390/w2030411
Received: 9 July 2010 / Revised: 3 August 2010 / Accepted: 10 August 2010 / Published: 12 August 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extensive network of tile drains present in the Midwest USA accelerate losses of nutrients to receiving ditches, rivers and eventually to the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient inputs from agricultural watersheds and their role in affecting water quality have received increased attention recently; [...] Read more.
Extensive network of tile drains present in the Midwest USA accelerate losses of nutrients to receiving ditches, rivers and eventually to the Gulf of Mexico. Nutrient inputs from agricultural watersheds and their role in affecting water quality have received increased attention recently; however, benthic sediment-nutrient interactions in tile-fed drainage ditches is still a matter of active research in consideration to nutrient discharge from tile drains. In this study, phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) contents and variability of nutrient retention ability of benthic sediments upstream and downstream from tile drain outlets were evaluated in managed agricultural drainage ditches in Indiana. Sediment samples were collected every three months upstream and downstream from selected tile drains in three ditches in northwest Indiana. Sediment equilibrium P concentrations (EPC0) were measured to examine P adsorption-desorption and equilibrium characteristics of benthic sediments in the ditches. P sorption index (PSI), exchangeable P (ExP), and exchangeable NH4+-N (ExN) were measured to evaluate nutrient retention ability and readily available nutrient content of benthic sediments. Results indicated a dynamic interaction between benthic sediment and overlying water column where sediments were acting as a sink or a source of P. There were no differences in nutrient retention ability between sediments collected upstream and sediments collected downstream from the selected tile drains. While the data, except for ExN, was comparable to reported values by previous studies in Indiana’s drainage ditches, there was no particular seasonal pattern in the content of exchangeable nutrient content in sediments at all three sites. This study also suggested that nutrient uptake by benthic sediments in these drainage ditches is not always efficient; therefore watershed management should focus on minimizing the delivery of nutrients into ditches while maintaining their drainage functionality. Full article
Open AccessArticle Water Property Models as Sovereignty Prerogatives: European Legal Perspectives in Comparison
Water 2010, 2(3), 429-438; doi:10.3390/w2030429
Received: 7 July 2010 / Revised: 14 August 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 18 August 2010
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Abstract
Water resources in European legal systems have always been vested in sovereign power, regardless of their legal nature as goods vested in State property or as res communes omnium not subject to ownership. The common legal foundation of sovereign power over water [...] Read more.
Water resources in European legal systems have always been vested in sovereign power, regardless of their legal nature as goods vested in State property or as res communes omnium not subject to ownership. The common legal foundation of sovereign power over water resources departed once civil law jurisdictions leveled the demesne on ownership model, by introducing public ownership in the French codification of 1804, while common law jurisdiction developed a broader legal concept of property that includes even the rights to use res communes. The models led respectively to the establishment of administrative systems of water rights and markets of water rights. According to the first, public authorities’ power to manage and preserve water resources is grounded in a derogatory regime, whereby water rights, grounded on licenses or concessions, are neither transferable nor tradeable. On the contrary, environmental and social concerns in water market schemes must be enforced by means of regulation, thus limiting private property rights on water, in compliance with the constitutional and common law constraints set out to protect the minimum content of property as a fundamental human right. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Evolution of National Wastewater Management Regimes—the Case of Israel
Water 2010, 2(3), 439-460; doi:10.3390/w2030439
Received: 7 July 2010 / Revised: 11 August 2010 / Accepted: 12 August 2010 / Published: 19 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the state of Israel wastewater management (WWM), the legal responsibility of municipalities, was neglected for decades, resulting in pollution of the scarce water resources and the environment. This trend was reversed during the 1990s. This paper analyses the evolution process of [...] Read more.
In the state of Israel wastewater management (WWM), the legal responsibility of municipalities, was neglected for decades, resulting in pollution of the scarce water resources and the environment. This trend was reversed during the 1990s. This paper analyses the evolution process of the national WWM regime and its effect on WWM at the municipal level, and explains the paradigm shift. It is found that both the long-term neglect and the paradigm shift can be attributed to the central government’s policies regarding WWM rather than to the local authorities. Full article
Open AccessArticle Smart Metering and Water End-Use Data: Conservation Benefits and Privacy Risks
Water 2010, 2(3), 461-467; doi:10.3390/w2030461
Received: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 17 August 2010 / Published: 19 August 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Smart metering technology for residential buildings is being trialed and rolled out by water utilities to assist with improved urban water management in a future affected by climate change. The technology can provide near real-time monitoring of where water is used in [...] Read more.
Smart metering technology for residential buildings is being trialed and rolled out by water utilities to assist with improved urban water management in a future affected by climate change. The technology can provide near real-time monitoring of where water is used in the home, disaggregated by end-use (shower, toilet, clothes washing, garden irrigation, etc.). This paper explores questions regarding the degree of information detail required to assist utilities in targeting demand management programs and informing customers of their usage patterns, whilst ensuring privacy concerns of residents are upheld. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Different Freezing/Thawing Parameterizations using the UTOPIA Model
Water 2010, 2(3), 468-483; doi:10.3390/w2030468
Received: 17 July 2010 / Revised: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 20 August 2010
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Abstract
Soil moisture changes are generally due to external factors (precipitation, evaporation, etc.) and internal forces (gravitational force, capillarity, transpiration, etc.). When soil temperatures remain below 0 °C for a long time (hours or even entire consecutive days), part of the [...] Read more.
Soil moisture changes are generally due to external factors (precipitation, evaporation, etc.) and internal forces (gravitational force, capillarity, transpiration, etc.). When soil temperatures remain below 0 °C for a long time (hours or even entire consecutive days), part of the liquid water content of the soil can freeze, thus freezing/thawing effects must be taken into account in those conditions. The present work is devoted to the numerical modeling of the water phase change in the soil. The model used in this study for the land surface processes is UTOPIA (University of TOrino land Process Interaction in Atmosphere) model, which is the updated version of LSPM (Land Surface Process Model). Scientific literature proposes some formulations to account for freezing/thawing processes. Three different parameterizations have been compared using a synthetic dataset in order to assess which one performs best from a physical point of view. Parameterizing freezing/thawing processes creates numerical instability and water overproduction in the UTOPIA model. These problems have been solved and described in the paper by means of synthetic data created to test the new parameterizations. The results show that UTOPIA is able to capture the freezing/thawing physical processes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle EAF Steel Slag Filters for Phosphorus Removal from Milk Parlor Effluent: The Effects of Solids Loading, Alternate Feeding Regimes and In-Series Design
Water 2010, 2(3), 484-499; doi:10.3390/w2030484
Received: 20 July 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag filters were investigated for their efficiency at reducing the concentration of phosphorus (P) from dairy farm wastewater in Vermont. The primary objective for this study was to examine the use of in series design on filters’ [...] Read more.
Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag filters were investigated for their efficiency at reducing the concentration of phosphorus (P) from dairy farm wastewater in Vermont. The primary objective for this study was to examine the use of in series design on filters’ performance in P removal from dairy farm wastewater at subzero temperatures. Other research objectives were to investigate operational parameters such as the effects of total suspended solids (TSS) daily mass loading rates and of alternating feeding and resting periods on EAF steel slag filters’ TSS, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies and filter system life-span. The utilization of in series filter design increased filter DRP removal efficiency by 35%. In series design also allows for alternating feeding and resting periods, which resulted in a 16%, 57% and 74% increase in TSS, DRP and TP removal efficiencies, respectively, by the first filter in series over a single period. Additionally, the system life span was extended 3.25 fold (from 52 to 169 day). Based on this research, we recommend alternate feeding and resting cycles and in series design to be integrated in the design of EAF steel slag filter systems for highly concentrated agricultural effluents in cold climates. Full article
Open AccessArticle Combination of Slag, Limestone and Sedimentary Apatite in Columns for Phosphorus Removal from Sludge Fish Farm Effluents
Water 2010, 2(3), 500-509; doi:10.3390/w2030500
Received: 17 July 2010 / Revised: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laboratory scale studies have repeatedly reported high P-retention in slag, a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry. Thus, it has emerged as a potential material to increase P-removal from constructed wetlands (CWs). However, several limitations were highlighted by field experiments, including the [...] Read more.
Laboratory scale studies have repeatedly reported high P-retention in slag, a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry. Thus, it has emerged as a potential material to increase P-removal from constructed wetlands (CWs). However, several limitations were highlighted by field experiments, including the high pH of treated water and clogging. We hypothesized that the addition of sedimentary rocks to slag would preserve P-removal properties while reducing the pH of treated water. Four 2.5 L-columns were filled with 100% apatite (column A); a 50% weight each mixture of limestone with apatite (column B); 10% steel slag located at the inlet, plus 45% limestone mixed with 45% apatite (column C); and a mixture of steel slag (10%), limestone (45%) apatite (45%) (column D). A synthetic effluent (26 mg P/L) and a reconstituted sludge fish farm effluent containing 97 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), 220 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 23.5 mg P/L phosphorus (P) were applied sequentially during 373 and 176 days, under saturated flow conditions and 12–24 hours hydraulic residence time (HRT), respectively. Treatment performance, P-removal, pH and calcium (Ca2+) were monitored. Results indicated that columns that contained 10% weight steel slag resulted in a higher P retention capacity than the columns without steel slag. The highest P removal was achieved in column C, containing a layer of slag in the inlet zone, 45% apatite and 45% limestone. Feeding the columns with a reconstituted fish farm effluent led to biofilm development, but this had little effect on the P-removal. A combination of slag and sedimentary rocks represents a promising filtration material that could be useful downstream of CWs to further increase P-removal. Full article
Open AccessArticle Alternative Water Allocation in Kyrgyzstan: Lessons from the Lower Colorado River Basin and New South Wales
Water 2010, 2(3), 510-529; doi:10.3390/w2030510
Received: 27 July 2010 / Revised: 13 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
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Abstract
Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes [...] Read more.
Focus group discussions and a modeling approach were applied to determine policy and regulatory refinements for current water allocation practices in Kyrgyzstan. Lessons from the Lower Colorado River basin, Texas and New South Wales, Australia were taken into consideration. The paper analyzes the impact of adopting some of these interventions within the socio-environmental context that currently prevails in Kyrgyzstan. The optimization model for water distribution at the river-basin scale was developed using GAMS 2.25 software. Application of the model to the Akbura River basin indicated efficiencies in the proposed institutional rules especially in low water years. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents
Water 2010, 2(3), 550-565; doi:10.3390/w2030550
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 19 August 2010 / Accepted: 24 August 2010 / Published: 31 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (583 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass [...] Read more.
Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Water Dynamics at the Root of Metamorphosis in Living Organisms
Water 2010, 2(3), 566-586; doi:10.3390/w2030566
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 10 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 3 September 2010
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Liquid water has been recognized long ago to be the matrix of many processes, including life and also rock dynamics. Interactions among biomolecules occur very differently in a non-aqueous system and are unable to produce life. This ability to make living processes [...] Read more.
Liquid water has been recognized long ago to be the matrix of many processes, including life and also rock dynamics. Interactions among biomolecules occur very differently in a non-aqueous system and are unable to produce life. This ability to make living processes possible implies a very peculiar structure of liquid water. According to modern Quantum Field Theory (QFT), a complementary principle (in the sense of Niels Bohr) holds between the number N of field quanta (including the matter field whose quanta are just the atoms/molecules) and the phase Ф. This means that when we focus on the atomic structure of matter it loses its coherence properties and, vice versa, when we examine the phase dynamics of the system its atomic structure becomes undefined. Superfluid liquid Helium is the first example of this peculiar quantum dynamics. In the present paper we show how consideration of the phase dynamics of liquid water makes the understanding of its peculiar role in the onset of self-organization in living organisms and in ecosystems possible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water: Facts without Myths)
Open AccessArticle Microbial Source Tracking in a Watershed Dominated by Swine
Water 2010, 2(3), 587-604; doi:10.3390/w2030587
Received: 5 August 2010 / Revised: 30 August 2010 / Accepted: 2 September 2010 / Published: 9 September 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The high concentration of swine production in southeastern North Carolina generates public health concerns regarding the potential transport of pathogens from these production systems to nearby surface waters. The microbial source tracking (MST) tool, antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA), was used to identify [...] Read more.
The high concentration of swine production in southeastern North Carolina generates public health concerns regarding the potential transport of pathogens from these production systems to nearby surface waters. The microbial source tracking (MST) tool, antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA), was used to identify sources of E. coli in a segment of Six Runs Creek in Sampson County, North Carolina. Among 52 water samples, fecal coliform (FC) counts averaged 272.1 ± 181.6 CFU/100 mL. Comparisons of isolates from water samples to an ARA library with an average rate of correct classification (ARCC) of 94.3% indicated an average of 64% and 27.1% of 1,961 isolates from Six Runs Creek were associated with lagoon effluent and cattle manure respectively. The potential for aerosol transport of bacteria during lagoon spray events, as well as, the potential for wildlife to serve as a vehicle of transport for bacteria from fields and lagoons to nearby surface waters should be investigated further. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo
Water 2010, 2(3), 649-667; doi:10.3390/w2030649
Received: 2 August 2010 / Revised: 1 September 2010 / Accepted: 13 September 2010 / Published: 19 September 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1468 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable [...] Read more.
Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N) and phosphorous (T-P) loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between (Mega-)Urban Land Use and Water Management)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Water Availability on Land and Water Productivity: A Temporal and Spatial Analysis of the Case Study Region Khorezm, Uzbekistan
Water 2010, 2(3), 668-684; doi:10.3390/w2030668
Received: 10 August 2010 / Revised: 3 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 September 2010 / Published: 19 September 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since irrigation water is assumedly the predominant factor determining crop yield, the difference in irrigation water availability across the administrative sub-districts of the Khorezm region, Central Asia, also inflicts an unequal distribution of agricultural revenues. Considering the national aim of a fair [...] Read more.
Since irrigation water is assumedly the predominant factor determining crop yield, the difference in irrigation water availability across the administrative sub-districts of the Khorezm region, Central Asia, also inflicts an unequal distribution of agricultural revenues. Considering the national aim of a fair distribution and efficient use of resources, here we analyze the relationships between irrigation water access and rural welfare from 2000 to 2007 by descriptive statistics. Analyses revealed not only the general dependency of agricultural revenue on irrigation water availability, but also occurrence of low land productivity during water scarce years and, irrespective of the annual water availability, in some tail end regions each year. Furthermore, apart from irrigation water availability, land productivity was also impacted by soil quality, cropping structure, and type of land ownership. Fair distribution of water and land resources should also take into consideration population density. It is argued that an anticipated equal and efficient water allocation necessitates improved irrigation water conveyance, distribution, and application efficiency via best water management practices. Liberalization of markets, development of a market infrastructure and improvement in yields also contribute to increased land and water productivity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reclaimed Water for Turfgrass Irrigation
Water 2010, 2(3), 685-701; doi:10.3390/w2030685
Received: 4 August 2010 / Revised: 17 September 2010 / Accepted: 19 September 2010 / Published: 21 September 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (914 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable irrigation of turfgrass grown on coarse-textured soils with reclaimed water must avoid detrimental effects of soluble salts on plant growth and soil quality and groundwater enrichment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate [...] Read more.
Sustainable irrigation of turfgrass grown on coarse-textured soils with reclaimed water must avoid detrimental effects of soluble salts on plant growth and soil quality and groundwater enrichment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate the effects of irrigating with municipal reclaimed water containing higher concentrations of soluble salts than potable water on turfgrass growth and quality and (2) to compare the effects of reclaimed and potable water on turfgrass assimilation and leaching of N and P. A sand-based medium plumbed to supply potable and reclaimed water and instrumented with lysimeters to collect leachate was planted with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x Cynodon transvaalensis var. Tifsport) and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera var. L-93). Both species produced high quality turfgrass with the reclaimed water. Although both grasses are moderately or highly salt tolerant when fully established, the bermudagrass growth and quality were reduced by the reclaimed water upon breaking dormancy, and its N use during this period was reduced. Continuous use of reclaimed water of the quality used in the study poses a potential soil Na accumulation problem. Both turfgrasses assimilated high amounts of N and P with minimal potential losses to groundwater. Full article
Open AccessCommunication The “Puzzle” of Water Behavior at Low Temperature
Water 2010, 2(3), 702-710; doi:10.3390/w2030702
Received: 29 July 2010 / Revised: 20 August 2010 / Accepted: 14 September 2010 / Published: 22 September 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid water are not fully understood despite a large amount of research work both experimental and theoretical. The maximum of density and the enhanced anomalies observed at low temperatures are at the origin of several models that, [...] Read more.
Thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid water are not fully understood despite a large amount of research work both experimental and theoretical. The maximum of density and the enhanced anomalies observed at low temperatures are at the origin of several models that, in some cases, predict specific and unique behavior such as spinodal lines or critical points. We show that a careful analysis of the neutron quasi-elastic scattering data, both the incoherent spectra and the dynamic of the partials, is compatible with a polymer-like model, where the hydrogen bond dynamics explains the behavior of water in the non-accessible temperature region extending from −30° C to the glass transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water: Facts without Myths)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview X-ray and Neutron Diffraction in the Study of Organic Crystalline Hydrates
Water 2010, 2(3), 333-350; doi:10.3390/w2030333
Received: 18 June 2010 / Revised: 5 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (761 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review. Diffraction methods are a powerful tool to investigate the crystal structure of organic compounds in general and their hydrates in particular. The laboratory standard technique of single crystal X-ray diffraction gives information about the molecular conformation, packing and hydrogen bonding [...] Read more.
A review. Diffraction methods are a powerful tool to investigate the crystal structure of organic compounds in general and their hydrates in particular. The laboratory standard technique of single crystal X-ray diffraction gives information about the molecular conformation, packing and hydrogen bonding in the crystal structure, while powder X-ray diffraction on bulk material can trace hydration/dehydration processes and phase transitions under non-ambient conditions. Neutron diffraction is a valuable complementary technique to X-ray diffraction and gives highly accurate hydrogen atom positions due to the interaction of the radiation with the atomic nuclei. Although not yet often applied to organic hydrates, neutron single crystal and neutron powder diffraction give precise structural data on hydrogen bonding networks which will help explain why hydrates form in the first place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water: Facts without Myths)
Open AccessReview Can a Century Old Experiment Reveal Hidden Properties of Water?
Water 2010, 2(3), 381-410; doi:10.3390/w2030381
Received: 30 June 2010 / Revised: 3 August 2010 / Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 10 August 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In 1893 Sir William Armstrong placed a cotton thread between two wine glasses filled with chemically pure water. After applying a high voltage, a watery connection formed, and after some time, the cotton thread was pulled into one of the glasses, leaving [...] Read more.
In 1893 Sir William Armstrong placed a cotton thread between two wine glasses filled with chemically pure water. After applying a high voltage, a watery connection formed, and after some time, the cotton thread was pulled into one of the glasses, leaving a rope of water suspended between the two glasses. Although being a very simple experiment, it is of special interest since it comprises a number of phenomena currently tackled in modern water science like electrolysis-less charge transport and nanobubbles. This work gives some background information about water research in general and describes the water bridge phenomenon from the viewpoint of different fields such as electrohydrodynamics and quantum field theory. It is shown that the investigation of the floating water bridge led to new discoveries about water, both in the macroscopic and microscopic realm – but these were merely “hidden” in that sense that they only become evident upon application of electric fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water: Facts without Myths)
Open AccessReview Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment
Water 2010, 2(3), 530-549; doi:10.3390/w2030530
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 12 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is [...] Read more.
The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal). In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems. Full article
Open AccessReview Urbanization Effects on Watershed Hydrology and In-Stream Processes in the Southern United States
Water 2010, 2(3), 605-648; doi:10.3390/w2030605
Received: 10 August 2010 / Revised: 1 September 2010 / Accepted: 2 September 2010 / Published: 13 September 2010
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (1078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The southern United States is characterized by a humid, subtropical climate and consists of 16 states (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland) and Washington DC. Currently this region [...] Read more.
The southern United States is characterized by a humid, subtropical climate and consists of 16 states (Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland) and Washington DC. Currently this region is experiencing the largest net population growth in the U.S. Over the last century, the expansion of large urban centers and impervious area in the region has altered the hydrologic cycle. This review synthesizes regional research that shows how watershed hydrology, groundwater recharge, stream geomorphology, climate, biogeochemistry, and stream ecology have been affected by urbanization and the expansion of watershed impervious area. Full article
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