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Water, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2010), Pages 120-320

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Impact of Floods on Livelihoods and Vulnerability of Natural Resource Dependent Communities in Northern Ghana
Water 2010, 2(2), 120-139; doi:10.3390/w2020120
Received: 15 January 2010 / Revised: 8 March 2010 / Accepted: 30 March 2010 / Published: 7 April 2010
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sub-Sahara Africa is considered to be most vulnerable to climate variability including flooding. The frequency and severity of floods in Northern Ghana over the last decade has increased considerably. Through qualitative modelling the paper explores the impact of floods on natural resource dependent
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Sub-Sahara Africa is considered to be most vulnerable to climate variability including flooding. The frequency and severity of floods in Northern Ghana over the last decade has increased considerably. Through qualitative modelling the paper explores the impact of floods on natural resource dependent communities in Northern Ghana. Simplified causal loop diagrams are used to conceptualise flood-induced coping strategies in the study area. The results indicate that some characteristics of the socio-cultural environment appear to mitigate risk and reduce vulnerability. In this context, the role of social networks in enhancing livelihood security is essential. The paper concludes that both in case of seasonal variations in agricultural output and floods, individuals that have effectively diversified their livelihoods, both occupationally and geographically, are less sensitive than individuals who mainly achieve entitlement to food via crop cultivation. However, diversification in this case, is effective only in the short term. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Three Systems for Biological Greywater Treatment
Water 2010, 2(2), 155-169; doi:10.3390/w2020155
Received: 3 February 2010 / Revised: 14 April 2010 / Accepted: 15 April 2010 / Published: 22 April 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Greywater consists of household wastewater excluding toilet discharges. Three systems were compared for the biological treatment of greywater at a similar hydraulic retention time of approximately 12–13 hours. These systems were aerobic treatment in a sequencing batch reactor, anaerobic treatment in an up-flow
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Greywater consists of household wastewater excluding toilet discharges. Three systems were compared for the biological treatment of greywater at a similar hydraulic retention time of approximately 12–13 hours. These systems were aerobic treatment in a sequencing batch reactor, anaerobic treatment in an up-flow anaerobic blanket reactor and combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment (up-flow anaerobic blanket reactor + sequencing batch reactor). Aerobic conditions resulted in a COD removal of 90%, which was significantly higher than 51% removal by anaerobic treatment. The low removal in the anaerobic reactor may have been caused by high concentration of anionic surfactants in the influent (43.5 mg/L) and a poor removal of the colloidal fraction of the COD in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors. Combined aerobic-anaerobic treatment accomplished a COD removal of 89%, similar to the aerobic treatment alone. Greywater methanization was 32% for the anaerobic system and 25% for the anaerobic-aerobic system, yielding a small amount of energy. Therefore, anaerobic pre-treatment is not feasible and an aerobic system is preferred for the treatment of greywater. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Increasing River Flows in the Sahel?
Water 2010, 2(2), 170-199; doi:10.3390/w2020170
Received: 17 February 2010 / Revised: 1 April 2010 / Accepted: 27 April 2010 / Published: 7 May 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the drought observed since 1968 in most of the West African Sahel, runoff and rivers discharges have been increasing in the same region. This trend is related with land use change rather than climate change. This paper aims to describe the regional
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Despite the drought observed since 1968 in most of the West African Sahel, runoff and rivers discharges have been increasing in the same region. This trend is related with land use change rather than climate change. This paper aims to describe the regional extension of such a phenomenon and to demonstrate that the increase in runoff is observed from the point scale up to the regional scale. It highlights the opposition of functioning between a Sahelian zone, where the Sahel’s paradox applies, and the Sudanian and Guinean areas, where runoff has been logically decreasing with the rainfall. The current trend is evidenced using experimental runoff plots and discharge data from the local to the regional scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Pros and Cons of Adopting Water-Wise Approaches in the Lower Reaches of the Amu Darya: A Socio-Economic View
Water 2010, 2(2), 200-216; doi:10.3390/w2020200
Received: 1 March 2010 / Revised: 18 March 2010 / Accepted: 6 May 2010 / Published: 20 May 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased frequency of water shortages parallel to growing demands for agricultural commodities in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya River, Central Asia, calls for improving the system-level water use efficiency, by using interventions at the field level. Despite the existence of
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The increased frequency of water shortages parallel to growing demands for agricultural commodities in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya River, Central Asia, calls for improving the system-level water use efficiency, by using interventions at the field level. Despite the existence of various best practices of effective water use (defined here as “water-wise options”), they are not widely adopted by farmers owing to high initial costs of investment and lack of the necessary knowledge and skills of a new generation of farmers after the Soviet era. For assessing the potential of several water-wise techniques, key indicators such as water use reduction rate (WURR), economic efficiency (EE), and financial viability (FV) were combined with expert surveys. A SWOT procedure was used to analyze the (dis)advantages, opportunities and constraints of adopting the selected water-wise methods. Results show that the examined options have substantial potential for increasing water use efficiency under promising EE. The various recommendations aim at improving the sustainability of irrigation water use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Element Analysis and Geochemical Spatial Trends of Groundwater in Rural Northern New York
Water 2010, 2(2), 217-238; doi:10.3390/w2020217
Received: 30 March 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 20 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Samples from private wells (n = 169) throughout St. Lawrence County, NY were analyzed by ICP-MS multi-element techniques. St. Lawrence County spans three diverse bedrock terranes including Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Adirondack Lowlands (mostly paragneisses) and Highlands (mostly orthogneisses), as well as
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Samples from private wells (n = 169) throughout St. Lawrence County, NY were analyzed by ICP-MS multi-element techniques. St. Lawrence County spans three diverse bedrock terranes including Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Adirondack Lowlands (mostly paragneisses) and Highlands (mostly orthogneisses), as well as Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the St. Lawrence Valley. An ArcGIS database was constructed and used to generate contour plots for elements across the county. Strontium isotopes and unique geochemical signatures were used to distinguish water from various geologic units. The results were consistent with a large (7,309 km2), sparsely populated (~110,000), rural region with diverse bedrock and glacial cover. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Best Fit and Selection of Theoretical Flood Frequency Distributions Based on Different Runoff Generation Mechanisms
Water 2010, 2(2), 239-256; doi:10.3390/w2020239
Received: 16 March 2010 / Revised: 13 May 2010 / Accepted: 19 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Theoretically derived distributions allow the detection of dominant runoff generation mechanisms as key signatures of hydrologic similarity. We used two theoretically derived distributions of flood peak annual maxima: the first is the “IF” distribution, which exploits the variable source area concept, coupled with
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Theoretically derived distributions allow the detection of dominant runoff generation mechanisms as key signatures of hydrologic similarity. We used two theoretically derived distributions of flood peak annual maxima: the first is the “IF” distribution, which exploits the variable source area concept, coupled with a runoff threshold having scaling properties; the second is the Two Component-IF (TCIF) distribution, which generalizes the IF distribution, and is based on two different threshold mechanisms, associated with ordinary and extraordinary events, respectively. By focusing on the application of both models to two river basins, of sub-humid and semi-arid climate in Southern Italy, we present an ad hoc procedure for the estimation of parameters and we discuss the use of appropriate techniques for model selection, in the case of nested distributions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle Crayfish Carapace Micro-powder (CCM): A Novel and Efficient Adsorbent for Heavy Metal Ion Removal from Wastewater
Water 2010, 2(2), 257-272; doi:10.3390/w2020257
Received: 26 April 2010 / Revised: 10 May 2010 / Accepted: 27 May 2010 / Published: 7 June 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crayfish carapace, a plentiful waste in China, was applied to remove divalent heavy metal ions—copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb)—from wastewater. The adsorption capacities of crayfish carapace micro-powder (CCM) for heavy metal ions were studied with adsorbent dosages ranging from
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Crayfish carapace, a plentiful waste in China, was applied to remove divalent heavy metal ions—copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb)—from wastewater. The adsorption capacities of crayfish carapace micro-powder (CCM) for heavy metal ions were studied with adsorbent dosages ranging from 0.5–2.5 g/L and with initial metal concentrations ranging from 50–250 mg/L. CCM particle size, initial solution pH (from 2.5–6.5), temperature (from 25–65 °C) and calcium level (from 3.5–21.5%) were also varied in batch mode. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity increases with both decreasing particle size and increasing calcium level of the crayfish carapace. The kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption could be complete within 2 h, and that the data correlated with the pseudo-second-order model. CCM recorded maximum uptakes of 200, 217.39, 80, and 322.58 mg/g for Cu, Cd, Zn, and Pb, respectively. The adsorption capacities and removal efficiencies of CCM for metal ions were three-times higher than those of chitin and chitosan extracted from the CCM. Full article
Open AccessArticle Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin
Water 2010, 2(2), 273-284; doi:10.3390/w2020273
Received: 5 May 2010 / Revised: 21 May 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 11 June 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie.
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Microbial concentrations, total suspended solids (TSS) and turbidity vary with stream hydrology and land use. Turbidity, TSS, and microbial concentrations, loads and yields from four watersheds were assessed: an unburned montane forest, a catastrophically burned montane forest, urban land use and rangeland prairie. Concentrations and loads for most water quality variables were greatest during storm events. Turbidity was an effective indicator of TSS, E. coli and Enterococci spp. The greatest threat to public health from microbial contamination occurs during storm runoff events. Efforts to manage surface runoff and erosion would likely improve water quality of the upper Pecos River basin in New Mexico, USA. Full article
Open AccessArticle Improved Filtration Technology for Pathogen Reduction in Rural Water Supplies
Water 2010, 2(2), 285-306; doi:10.3390/w2020285
Received: 30 April 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 18 June 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF) is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size,
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Intermittent bio-sand filtration (BSF) is a low-cost process for improving water quality in rural households. This study addresses its two drawbacks: flow limitations requiring excessive waiting, and inadequate purification when high flows are imposed. Two modifications were examined: increasing the sand’s effective size, and adding zero-valent iron (ZVI) into the media as a disinfectant. After 65 days, percent reductions in total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci averaged 98.9% for traditional BSF and 99% for the improved BSF. Both modifications showed statistically significant improvements. Increased sand size and ZVI addition can counter the drawbacks of traditional BSF. Full article
Open AccessArticle Facts and Perspectives of Water Reservoirs in Central Asia: A Special Focus on Uzbekistan
Water 2010, 2(2), 307-320; doi:10.3390/w2020307
Received: 14 May 2010 / Accepted: 11 June 2010 / Published: 23 June 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security,
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The political transformation of the Central Asian region has induced the implosion of the interconnected physical hydraulic infrastructure and its institutional management system. Land-locked Central Asian countries, with their climatic conditions and transboundary water resources, have been striving to meet their food security, to increase agricultural production, to sustain energy sectors, and to protect the environment. The existing water reservoirs are strategic infrastructures for irrigation and hydropower generation. Upstream countries (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) favor the reservoirs’ operation for energy supply, while downstream countries (Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan) push for irrigation use. This paper provides an overview of the current challenges and perspectives (technical, institutional, and legal regulations) and presents recommendations for the sustainable management of man-made water reservoirs in Uzbekistan. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Hydrologic Restoration in the Urban Environment Using Green Roofs
Water 2010, 2(2), 140-154; doi:10.3390/w2020140
Received: 18 January 2010 / Revised: 3 March 2010 / Accepted: 30 March 2010 / Published: 9 April 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (200 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Loss of natural soil and vegetation within the urban environment can significantly affect the hydrologic cycle by increasing storm water runoff rates and volumes. In order to mitigate these modifications in urban areas engineered systems are developed, such as green roofs, to mimic
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Loss of natural soil and vegetation within the urban environment can significantly affect the hydrologic cycle by increasing storm water runoff rates and volumes. In order to mitigate these modifications in urban areas engineered systems are developed, such as green roofs, to mimic and replace functions (evapo-transpiration, infiltration, percolation) which have been altered due to the impact of human development. Green roofs, also known as vegetated roof covers, eco-roofs or nature roofs, are composite complex layered structures with specific environmental benefits. They are increasingly being used as a source control measure for urban storm water management. Indeed, they are able to re-establish the natural water cycle processes and to operate hydrologic control over storm water runoff with a derived peak flow attenuation, runoff volume reduction and increase of the time of concentration. Furthermore green roofs exhibit the capacity to reduce storm water pollution; they generally act as a storage device, consequently pollutants are accumulated in the substrate layer and released when intensive rainwater washes them out. In order to investigate the hydrologic response of a green roof, the University of Genova recently developed a joint laboratory and full-scale monitoring programme by installing a “controlled” laboratory test-bed with known rainfall input and a companion green roof experimental site (40 cm depth) in the town of Genoa. In the paper, data collected during the monitoring programme are presented and compared with literature data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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