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Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment
AbstractThe first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal). In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.
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MDPI and ACS Style
Vymazal, J. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Water 2010, 2, 530-549.View more citation formats
Vymazal J. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Water. 2010; 2(3):530-549.Chicago/Turabian Style
Vymazal, Jan. 2010. "Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment." Water 2, no. 3: 530-549.