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Water 2010, 2(3), 530-549; doi:10.3390/w2030530

Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment

Received: 2 July 2010; in revised form: 12 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
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Abstract: The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal). In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.
Keywords: constructed wetlands; macrophytes; nutrients; organics; wastewater constructed wetlands; macrophytes; nutrients; organics; wastewater
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vymazal, J. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Water 2010, 2, 530-549.

AMA Style

Vymazal J. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Water. 2010; 2(3):530-549.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vymazal, Jan. 2010. "Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment." Water 2, no. 3: 530-549.

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