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Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment
Department of Landscape Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences, Prague, Náměstí Smiřických 1, 281 63 Kostelec nad Černými lesy, Czech Republic
Received: 2 July 2010; in revised form: 12 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Abstract: The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal). In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems.
Keywords: constructed wetlands; macrophytes; nutrients; organics; wastewater
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MDPI and ACS Style
Vymazal, J. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Water 2010, 2, 530-549.
Vymazal J. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Water. 2010; 2(3):530-549.
Vymazal, Jan. 2010. "Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment." Water 2, no. 3: 530-549.