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Water, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2010), Pages 711-937

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Planning and Decision Support Tools for the Integrated Water Resources Management in Vietnam
Water 2010, 2(4), 711-725; doi:10.3390/w2040711
Received: 2 August 2010 / Revised: 3 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 September 2010 / Published: 28 September 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Within the German-Vietnamese joint research project “Integrated Water Resources Management Vietnam”, Planning and Decision Support Tools on a regional scale are being developed. A Water Balance Tool is utilized to calculate and assess water demands and compares these with the quantity of [...] Read more.
Within the German-Vietnamese joint research project “Integrated Water Resources Management Vietnam”, Planning and Decision Support Tools on a regional scale are being developed. A Water Balance Tool is utilized to calculate and assess water demands and compares these with the quantity of water resources to identify surpluses or deficits. The sensitivity of water resources and the contamination potential are combined to display water quality aspects within a Contamination Risk Tool. A resulting evaluation is carried out with a Ranking Tool. It identifies areas with high priority need for action. The Planning and Decision Support Tools are being discussed with Vietnamese institutions and authorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction between (Mega-)Urban Land Use and Water Management)
Open AccessArticle An Integrated Assessment of Investments towards Global Water Sustainability
Water 2010, 2(4), 726-741; doi:10.3390/w2040726
Received: 12 September 2010 / Revised: 29 September 2010 / Accepted: 14 October 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (405 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To date there has been limited research on integrated water resource management, specifically regarding investments, from a global perspective, largely due to the complexity of the problem and to generally local water management practices. Water demand and supply are very often affected [...] Read more.
To date there has been limited research on integrated water resource management, specifically regarding investments, from a global perspective, largely due to the complexity of the problem and to generally local water management practices. Water demand and supply are very often affected by international factors and with global climate change, population growth and increasing consumption, water management is now more than ever a global issue. This paper gives an overview of current and impending water problems while assessing investment needs for integrated water management as a possible solution to projected water challenges. The analysis compares a business as usual case (BAU) to a scenario in which investments improve water efficiency use across sectors to curb demand, increase innovative supply from desalination and enhance conventional water resources management measures. System dynamics modeling is employed to represent the structural factors influencing water demand and supply in the context of an integrated framework including cross-sectoral linkages. The analysis confirms that sustainable water management is feasible, but it requires investments in the range of $145 billion per year between 2011 and 2050 (0.16% of GDP or $17/person/year) and timely, effective action. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Role of Geohydrology in the Determination of a Spatial Development Framework in the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site
Water 2010, 2(4), 742-772; doi:10.3390/w2040742
Received: 3 September 2010 / Revised: 28 September 2010 / Accepted: 12 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (12586 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface water resources (the Vaal River and its tributaries) in the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site (VDWHS), South Africa, have been over extended and future development will rely solely on groundwater. Hence, being at a critical point in the water balance, groundwater [...] Read more.
Surface water resources (the Vaal River and its tributaries) in the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site (VDWHS), South Africa, have been over extended and future development will rely solely on groundwater. Hence, being at a critical point in the water balance, groundwater resources in the VDWHS require careful management and protection to ensure sustainability and equitable access. An assessment of the geohydrological character of the VDWHS was therefore done in order to develop a groundwater resource management plan. Five groundwater resource management units were delineated and resource measures for each management unit were developed based on physical and anthropogenic attributes. Due to the importance of groundwater in the VDWHS, it was determined that geohydrology should play a major role in the alignment of the environmental, spatial and statutory development frameworks, in order to ensure good governance. A geohydrological-based land use management guideline and spatial development framework was developed to optimize the integration between the water sector, the environmental sector and land use and spatial planning sector. It was concluded that a geohydrological assessment needs to form the basis of all future land use management and spatial planning activities in the VDWHS. Full article
Open AccessArticle Snow Precipitation and Snow Cover Climatic Variability for the Period 1971–2009 in the Southwestern Italian Alps: The 2008–2009 Snow Season Case Study
Water 2010, 2(4), 773-787; doi:10.3390/w2040773
Received: 8 September 2010 / Revised: 7 October 2010 / Accepted: 17 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Snow cover greatly influences the climate in the Alpine region and is one of the most relevant parameters for the climate change analysis. Nevertheless, snow precipitation variability is a relatively underexplored field of research because of the lack of long-term, continuous and [...] Read more.
Snow cover greatly influences the climate in the Alpine region and is one of the most relevant parameters for the climate change analysis. Nevertheless, snow precipitation variability is a relatively underexplored field of research because of the lack of long-term, continuous and homogeneous time series. After a historical research aiming to recover continuous records, three high quality time series of snow precipitation and snow depth recorded in the southwestern Italian Alps were analyzed. The comparison between the climatological indices over the 30 years reference period 1971–2000 and the decade 2000–2009 outlined a general decrease in the amount of snow precipitation, and a shift in the seasonal distribution of the snow precipitation in the most recent period. In the analysis of the last decade snow seasons characteristics, the attention was focused on the heavy snowfalls that occurred in Piedmont during the 2008–2009 snow season: MODerate resolution Imager Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow cover products were used to evaluate snow cover extension at different times during the snow season, and the results were set in relation to the temperatures. Full article
Open AccessArticle Residential Water Scarcity in Cyprus: Impact of Climate Change and Policy Options
Water 2010, 2(4), 788-814; doi:10.3390/w2040788
Received: 13 September 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 14 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an assessment of the cost of water scarcity in Cyprus, today and in the next 20 years, taking into account the effect of projected climate change in the region. It focuses on the residential sector, accounting also for tourism [...] Read more.
This paper presents an assessment of the cost of water scarcity in Cyprus, today and in the next 20 years, taking into account the effect of projected climate change in the region. It focuses on the residential sector, accounting also for tourism and industry. Using a simple demand function, total scarcity costs in Cyprus are computed for the period 2010–2030, and three scenarios of future water demand are presented. The central estimate shows that the present value of total costs due to water shortages will amount to 72 million Euros (at 2009 prices), and, if future water demand increases a little faster, these costs may reach 200 million Euros. Using forecasts of regional climate models, costs are found to be about 20% higher in a “climate change” scenario. Compared to the loss of consumer surplus due to water shortages, desalination is found to be a costly solution, even if environmental damage costs from the operation of desalination plants are not accounted for. Finally, dynamic constrained optimization is employed and shows that efficient residential water prices should include a scarcity price of about 40 Eurocents per cubic meter at  2009 prices; this would constitute a 30–100% increase in current prices faced by residential consumers. Reductions in rainfall due to climate change would raise this price by another 2-3 Eurocents. Such a pricing policy would provide a clear long-term signal to consumers and firms and could substantially contribute to a sustainable use of water resources in the island. Full article
Open AccessArticle Bilateral Collaboration in Municipal Water and Wastewater Services in Finland
Water 2010, 2(4), 815-825; doi:10.3390/w2040815
Received: 20 September 2010 / Revised: 15 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several forms of supra-municipal cooperation between water and wastewater utilities have evolved in Finland since the 1950s: bilateral contract-based, municipal federations or authorities operating on a wholesale basis as well as supra-municipal companies. These may take care of community water supply or [...] Read more.
Several forms of supra-municipal cooperation between water and wastewater utilities have evolved in Finland since the 1950s: bilateral contract-based, municipal federations or authorities operating on a wholesale basis as well as supra-municipal companies. These may take care of community water supply or sewerage, or both. This paper explores and analyzes the most common form of cooperation: contracts for water and wastewater services between neighboring municipalities. The extent of contractual cooperation until 2006 was explored by an inquiry sent to bigger water and wastewater utilities (n = 233 replies; 88 %). Compared to a study performed in 1975, the number of bilateral contracts had tripled. The study also included interviews targeting nine selected cases. We examined also the centralization of wastewater treatment when small plants are closed down and wastewater is directed to larger plants. Centralization has led to the construction of transfer sewers; the paper also explores their evolution from 1995 to 2015. Contrary to common arguments, contractual cooperation proved rather easy to manage and should be seen as a serious option for other tighter forms of supra-municipal cooperation that are also increasing. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Heavy Rainfall Monitoring by Polarimetric C-Band Weather Radars
Water 2010, 2(4), 838-848; doi:10.3390/w2040838
Received: 8 October 2010 / Accepted: 8 November 2010 / Published: 9 November 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Piemonte region, in the north-western Italy, is characterized by complex orography and Mediterranean influence that often causes extreme rainfall event, during the warm season. Although the region is monitored by a dense gauge network (more than one gauge per 100 km2 [...] Read more.
Piemonte region, in the north-western Italy, is characterized by complex orography and Mediterranean influence that often causes extreme rainfall event, during the warm season. Although the region is monitored by a dense gauge network (more than one gauge per 100 km2), the ground measurements are often inadequate to properly observe intense and highly variable precipitations. Polarimetric weather radars provide a unique way to monitor rainfall over wide areas, with the required spatial detail and temporal resolution. Nevertheless, most European weather radar networks are operating at C-band, which may seriously limit quantitative precipitation estimation in heavy rainfall due to relevant power signal attenuation. Phase measurements, unlike power measurements, are not affected by signal attenuation. For this reason, polarimetric radars, for which the differential phase shift measurements are available, provide an additional way in which to estimate precipitation, which is immune to signal attenuation. In this work differential phase based rainfall estimation techniques are applied to analyze two flash-floods: the first one occurred on the Ligurian Apennines on 16 August 2006 and the second occurred on 13 September 2008, causing rain accumulations above 270 mm in few hours. Full article
Open AccessArticle Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds
Water 2010, 2(4), 849-871; doi:10.3390/w2040849
Received: 6 October 2010 / Revised: 4 November 2010 / Accepted: 10 November 2010 / Published: 12 November 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP) effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and [...] Read more.
There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP) effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS) for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83) compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90). Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75). Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ultrafiltration (UF) Pilot Plant for Municipal Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: Impact of the Operation Mode on Process Performance
Water 2010, 2(4), 872-885; doi:10.3390/w2040872
Received: 9 October 2010 / Revised: 15 November 2010 / Accepted: 15 November 2010 / Published: 22 November 2010
PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following increasing interest in the use of UltraFiltration (UF) membrane processes as an alternative advanced disinfection technique, the performance of a UF pilot plant was investigated under two opposite operating conditions (“stressed operating condition” versus “conventional operating condition”). The results indicate that for both conditions, the reclaimed effluent complied with the Italian regulations for unrestricted wastewater reuse (i.e., Total Suspended Solids (TSS) < 10 mg/L; Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) < 100 mg/L and Escherichia coli < 10 CFU/100 mL). On the other hand, when compared with the Title 22 of the California Wastewater Reclamation Criteria, only the effluent produced under the “conventional operating condition” met the stipulated water quality standards (i.e., TSS and turbidity undetectable and total coliforms < 2.2 CFU/100 mL). It should be noted that, in spite of the nominal cut-off size, total coliforms breakthrough was indeed occasionally observed. A localized membrane pore micro-enlargement mechanism was hypothesized to explain the total coliforms propagation in the ultrafiltered effluent, as monitoring of the membrane permeability and transmembrane pressure highlighted that gel/cake formation had only a minor contribution to the overall membrane fouling mechanism with respect to pore plugging and pore narrowing mechanisms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Improvement of Hydraulic and Water Quality Renovation Functions by Intermittent Aeration of Soil Treatment Areas in Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems
Water 2010, 2(4), 886-903; doi:10.3390/w2040886
Received: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 24 November 2010 / Published: 1 December 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We tested intermittent aeration of the soil treatment area (STA) of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for its ability to restore and maintain STA hydraulic flow and improve the water quality functions of conventional OWTS. Evaluation was conducted on hydraulically-failed conventional OWTS [...] Read more.
We tested intermittent aeration of the soil treatment area (STA) of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) for its ability to restore and maintain STA hydraulic flow and improve the water quality functions of conventional OWTS. Evaluation was conducted on hydraulically-failed conventional OWTS at three state-owned medical group homes in Washington County, RI, USA. Testing was conducted in two phases, with Phase I (before intermittent soil aeration (ISA)) comprising the first 6 months of the study, and Phase II (during ISA) the remaining 7 months. Intermittent soil aeration restored STA hydraulic function in all three systems despite a marked reduction in the STA total infiltrative surface. Soil pore water was collected from 30 and 90 cm below the STA during both phases and analyzed for standard wastewater parameters. Although the STA infiltrative surface was reduced—and the contaminant load per unit of area increased—after installation of the ISA system, no differences were observed between phases in concentration of total N, NO3, total P, or dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Apparent removal rates—which do not account for dilution or differences in infiltrative area—for total N, total P, and DOC remained the same or improved during Phase II relative to the pre-operation phase. Furthermore, intermittent soil aeration enhanced actual removal rates —which do account for dilution and differences in infiltrative area. The effects of ISA on actual removal of contaminants from STE increased with increasing hydraulic load—a counterintuitive phenomenon, but one that has been previously observed in laboratory studies. The results of our study suggest that intermittent soil aeration can restore and maintain hydraulic flow in the STA and enhance carbon and nutrient removal in conventional OWTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
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Open AccessArticle The Effectiveness of Silica Sand in Semi-Aerobic Stabilized Landfill Leachate Treatment
Water 2010, 2(4), 904-915; doi:10.3390/w2040904
Received: 10 October 2010 / Revised: 1 November 2010 / Accepted: 25 November 2010 / Published: 6 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (128 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the suitability of natural silica sand as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and heavy metals, particularly iron and zinc, from semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate. Leachate samples were collected from the Pulau Burung landfill site (PBLS) [...] Read more.
This study examines the suitability of natural silica sand as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and heavy metals, particularly iron and zinc, from semi-aerobic stabilized landfill leachate. Leachate samples were collected from the Pulau Burung landfill site (PBLS) in Penang, Malaysia. The above-mentioned contaminants are highlighted in this study because of their unsafe concentrations at PBLS. The effects of shaking time, settling time, and silica sand dosage on the study parameter removal efficiencies were investigated to predict the performance of the process. The adsorptions of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc were judiciously described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The optimum removal efficiencies of ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc obtained were 51%, 44.4%, and 39.2%, respectively, with a shaking time of 90 min, a settling time of 60 min, and with a dosage of 60 g (0.5 kg/L) of silica sand. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2) values obtained from Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, ammoniacal nitrogen, iron, and zinc adsorption were better fitted to the Freundlich model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Technology of Wastewater and Sludge Treatment)
Open AccessArticle Preliminary Results on the Evaluation of Factors Influencing Evapotranspiration Processes in Vineyards
Water 2010, 2(4), 916-937; doi:10.3390/w2040916
Received: 7 October 2010 / Revised: 20 October 2010 / Accepted: 29 November 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper summarizes the preliminary results from the analysis of data collected during the 2008 and 2009 vegetative seasons in a northern Italy vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., Barbera variety) and the simulations carried out in the same period with the land surface [...] Read more.
The paper summarizes the preliminary results from the analysis of data collected during the 2008 and 2009 vegetative seasons in a northern Italy vineyard (Vitis vinifera L., Barbera variety) and the simulations carried out in the same period with the land surface model UTOPIA. The aim of the work is to study the influence of the meteorological factors on the plant conditions. We collected a set of standard and advanced meteorological, physiological and physical data and we investigated the performance of UTOPIA in describing the different components of the energy and hydrological processes (in particular the evapotranspiration), with a special focus on the vegetation and soil. The comparison between observed data and UTOPIA simulations showed satisfactory results for the soil variables (RRMSE ranging between 15% and 40%, and correlation coefficients of 0.9). Net radiation and sensible heat fluxes RRMSE (30% and 63% respectively) suggest that both the calibration of the vegetation parameters (including the influence of the grass among vine rows) and the availability of more specific measurements are very important. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review
Water 2010, 2(4), 826-837; doi:10.3390/w2040826
Received: 30 September 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), [...] Read more.
Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material. Full article

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