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Water 2010, 2(3), 439-460; doi:10.3390/w2030439

The Evolution of National Wastewater Management Regimes—the Case of Israel

The Twente Centre for Studies in Technology and Sustainable Development (CSTM), University of Twente, Postbus 217, 7500 AE, Enschede, Netherlands
Received: 7 July 2010 / Revised: 11 August 2010 / Accepted: 12 August 2010 / Published: 19 August 2010
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Abstract

In the state of Israel wastewater management (WWM), the legal responsibility of municipalities, was neglected for decades, resulting in pollution of the scarce water resources and the environment. This trend was reversed during the 1990s. This paper analyses the evolution process of the national WWM regime and its effect on WWM at the municipal level, and explains the paradigm shift. It is found that both the long-term neglect and the paradigm shift can be attributed to the central government’s policies regarding WWM rather than to the local authorities. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater management; wastewater policy; regime evolution; transitions; Israel wastewater management; wastewater policy; regime evolution; transitions; Israel
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Hophmayer-Tokich, S. The Evolution of National Wastewater Management Regimes—the Case of Israel. Water 2010, 2, 439-460.

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