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Special Issue "Water Pollution Management by Constructed Wetlands and On Site Filter Technologies"

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A special issue of Water (ISSN 2073-4441).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Aleksandra Drizo (Website)

School of Energy, Geosciences, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot Watt University, Riccarton campus, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
Interests: water pollution control; phosphorus and pathogens removal; agricultural and urban stormwater management; sustainable water treatment technologies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Phosphorus Accumulation Pattern in a Subsurface Constructed Wetland Treating Residential Wastewater
Water 2011, 3(1), 146-156; doi:10.3390/w3010146
Received: 7 December 2010 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 27 January 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (512 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland was investigated after eight years of residential wastewater discharge (150 person equivalents). Twenty core samples distributed over the entire wetland were taken from the soil matrix. The distribution pattern of phosphorus (P) accumulation in the substrate [...] Read more.
A horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland was investigated after eight years of residential wastewater discharge (150 person equivalents). Twenty core samples distributed over the entire wetland were taken from the soil matrix. The distribution pattern of phosphorus (P) accumulation in the substrate of the wetland was determined using kriging technique and P sorption was related to the content of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe). The correlations found between Al, Ca and Fe content and P accumulation in the bed substrate were weak: R2 = 0.09, R2 = 0.21 and R2 = 0.28, respectively. Great heterogeneity was observed in the distribution of Ca, P and organic matter in the superficial and deeper layers of the bed. Hydraulic problems associated with wastewater discharge and conductivity of the bed substrate were suggested to have negative effects on the wetland performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle EAF Steel Slag Filters for Phosphorus Removal from Milk Parlor Effluent: The Effects of Solids Loading, Alternate Feeding Regimes and In-Series Design
Water 2010, 2(3), 484-499; doi:10.3390/w2030484
Received: 20 July 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag filters were investigated for their efficiency at reducing the concentration of phosphorus (P) from dairy farm wastewater in Vermont. The primary objective for this study was to examine the use of in series design on filters’ [...] Read more.
Electric arc furnace (EAF) steel slag filters were investigated for their efficiency at reducing the concentration of phosphorus (P) from dairy farm wastewater in Vermont. The primary objective for this study was to examine the use of in series design on filters’ performance in P removal from dairy farm wastewater at subzero temperatures. Other research objectives were to investigate operational parameters such as the effects of total suspended solids (TSS) daily mass loading rates and of alternating feeding and resting periods on EAF steel slag filters’ TSS, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) and total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiencies and filter system life-span. The utilization of in series filter design increased filter DRP removal efficiency by 35%. In series design also allows for alternating feeding and resting periods, which resulted in a 16%, 57% and 74% increase in TSS, DRP and TP removal efficiencies, respectively, by the first filter in series over a single period. Additionally, the system life span was extended 3.25 fold (from 52 to 169 day). Based on this research, we recommend alternate feeding and resting cycles and in series design to be integrated in the design of EAF steel slag filter systems for highly concentrated agricultural effluents in cold climates. Full article
Open AccessArticle Combination of Slag, Limestone and Sedimentary Apatite in Columns for Phosphorus Removal from Sludge Fish Farm Effluents
Water 2010, 2(3), 500-509; doi:10.3390/w2030500
Received: 17 July 2010 / Revised: 2 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (221 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Laboratory scale studies have repeatedly reported high P-retention in slag, a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry. Thus, it has emerged as a potential material to increase P-removal from constructed wetlands (CWs). However, several limitations were highlighted by field experiments, including the [...] Read more.
Laboratory scale studies have repeatedly reported high P-retention in slag, a by-product of the steel manufacturing industry. Thus, it has emerged as a potential material to increase P-removal from constructed wetlands (CWs). However, several limitations were highlighted by field experiments, including the high pH of treated water and clogging. We hypothesized that the addition of sedimentary rocks to slag would preserve P-removal properties while reducing the pH of treated water. Four 2.5 L-columns were filled with 100% apatite (column A); a 50% weight each mixture of limestone with apatite (column B); 10% steel slag located at the inlet, plus 45% limestone mixed with 45% apatite (column C); and a mixture of steel slag (10%), limestone (45%) apatite (45%) (column D). A synthetic effluent (26 mg P/L) and a reconstituted sludge fish farm effluent containing 97 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), 220 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 23.5 mg P/L phosphorus (P) were applied sequentially during 373 and 176 days, under saturated flow conditions and 12–24 hours hydraulic residence time (HRT), respectively. Treatment performance, P-removal, pH and calcium (Ca2+) were monitored. Results indicated that columns that contained 10% weight steel slag resulted in a higher P retention capacity than the columns without steel slag. The highest P removal was achieved in column C, containing a layer of slag in the inlet zone, 45% apatite and 45% limestone. Feeding the columns with a reconstituted fish farm effluent led to biofilm development, but this had little effect on the P-removal. A combination of slag and sedimentary rocks represents a promising filtration material that could be useful downstream of CWs to further increase P-removal. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review
Water 2010, 2(4), 826-837; doi:10.3390/w2040826
Received: 30 September 2010 / Accepted: 19 October 2010 / Published: 28 October 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), [...] Read more.
Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material. Full article
Open AccessReview Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment
Water 2010, 2(3), 530-549; doi:10.3390/w2030530
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 12 August 2010 / Accepted: 20 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (977 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is [...] Read more.
The first experiments using wetland macrophytes for wastewater treatment were carried out in Germany in the early 1950s. Since then, the constructed wetlands have evolved into a reliable wastewater treatment technology for various types of wastewater. The classification of constructed wetlands is based on: the vegetation type (emergent, submerged, floating leaved, free-floating); hydrology (free water surface and subsurface flow); and subsurface flow wetlands can be further classified according to the flow direction (vertical or horizontal). In order to achieve better treatment performance, namely for nitrogen, various types of constructed wetlands could be combined into hybrid systems. Full article

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