Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Genes, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2010), Pages 335-563

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: Next Generation DNA Sequencing
Genes 2010, 1(3), 385-387; doi:10.3390/genes1030385
Received: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 26 October 2010 / Published: 27 October 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (24 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) refers to technologies that do not rely on traditional dideoxy-nucleotide (Sanger) sequencing where labeled DNA fragments are physically resolved by electrophoresis. These new technologies rely on different strategies, but essentially all of them make use of real-time data [...] Read more.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) refers to technologies that do not rely on traditional dideoxy-nucleotide (Sanger) sequencing where labeled DNA fragments are physically resolved by electrophoresis. These new technologies rely on different strategies, but essentially all of them make use of real-time data collection of a base level incorporation event across a massive number of reactions (on the order of millions versus 96 for capillary electrophoresis for instance). The major commercial NGS platforms available to researchers are the 454 Genome Sequencer (Roche), Illumina (formerly Solexa) Genome analyzer, the SOLiD system (Applied Biosystems/Life Technologies) and the Heliscope (Helicos Corporation). The techniques and different strategies utilized by these platforms are reviewed in a number of the papers in this special issue. These technologies are enabling new applications that take advantage of the massive data produced by this next generation of sequencing instruments. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation DNA Sequencing)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Size Polymorphism in Alleles of the Myoglobin Gene from Biomphalaria Mollusks
Genes 2010, 1(3), 357-370; doi:10.3390/genes1030357
Received: 8 September 2010 / Revised: 7 October 2010 / Accepted: 14 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1083 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introns are common among all eukaryotes, while only a limited number of introns are found in prokaryotes. Globin and globin-like proteins are widely distributed in nature, being found even in prokaryotes and a wide range of patterns of intron-exon have been reported [...] Read more.
Introns are common among all eukaryotes, while only a limited number of introns are found in prokaryotes. Globin and globin-like proteins are widely distributed in nature, being found even in prokaryotes and a wide range of patterns of intron-exon have been reported in several eukaryotic globin genes. Globin genes in invertebrates show considerable variation in the positions of introns; globins can be found without introns, with only one intron or with three introns in different positions. In this work we analyzed the introns in the myoglobin gene from Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea and B. tenagophila. In the Biomphalaria genus, the myoglobin gene has three introns; these were amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP. Results showed that the size (number or nucleotides) and the nucleotide sequence of the coding gene of the myoglobin are variable in the three species. We observed the presence of size polymorphisms in intron 2 and 3; this characterizes a homozygous/heterozygous profile and it indicates the existence of two alleles which are different in size in each species of Biomphalaria. This polymorphism could be explored for specific identification of Biomphalaria individuals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Identification of Carbohydrate Metabolism Genes in the Metagenome of a Marine Biofilm Community Shown to Be Dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes
Genes 2010, 1(3), 371-384; doi:10.3390/genes1030371
Received: 21 September 2010 / Revised: 5 October 2010 / Accepted: 11 October 2010 / Published: 26 October 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (2192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Polysaccharides are an important source of organic carbon in the marine environment and degradation of the insoluble and globally abundant cellulose is a major component of the marine carbon cycle. Although a number of species of cultured bacteria are known to degrade [...] Read more.
Polysaccharides are an important source of organic carbon in the marine environment and degradation of the insoluble and globally abundant cellulose is a major component of the marine carbon cycle. Although a number of species of cultured bacteria are known to degrade crystalline cellulose, little is known of the polysaccharide hydrolases expressed by cellulose-degrading microbial communities, particularly in the marine environment. Next generation 454 Pyrosequencing was applied to analyze the microbial community that colonizes and degrades insoluble polysaccharides in situ in the Irish Sea. The bioinformatics tool MG-RAST was used to examine the randomly sampled data for taxonomic markers and functional genes, and showed that the community was dominated by members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, the identification of 211 gene sequences matched to a custom-made database comprising the members of nine glycoside hydrolase families revealed an extensive repertoire of functional genes predicted to be involved in cellulose utilization. This demonstrates that the use of an in situ cellulose baiting method yielded a marine microbial metagenome considerably enriched in functional genes involved in polysaccharide degradation. The research reported here is the first designed to specifically address the bacterial communities that colonize and degrade cellulose in the marine environment and to evaluate the glycoside hydrolase (cellulase and chitinase) gene repertoire of that community, in the absence of the biases associated with PCR-based molecular techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Next Generation DNA Sequencing)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Establishment and Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of a Cell Culture Model of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC)
Genes 2010, 1(3), 388-412; doi:10.3390/genes1030388
Received: 17 September 2010 / Revised: 30 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 October 2010 / Published: 11 November 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cytogenetic analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) established several biomarkers that have been correlated to clinical parameters during the past years. Adequate cell culture model systems are required for functional studies investigating those potential prognostic markers in HNSCC. We [...] Read more.
Cytogenetic analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) established several biomarkers that have been correlated to clinical parameters during the past years. Adequate cell culture model systems are required for functional studies investigating those potential prognostic markers in HNSCC. We have used a cell line, CAL 33, for the establishment of a cell culture model in order to perform functional analyses of interesting candidate genes and proteins. The cell line was cytogenetically characterized using array CGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). As a starting point for the investigation of genetic markers predicting radiosensitivity in tumor cells, irradiation experiments were carried out and radiation responses of CAL 33 have been determined. Radiosensitivity of CAL 33 cells was intermediate when compared to published data on tumor cell lines. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evidence Implicating CCNB1IP1, a RING Domain-Containing Protein Required for Meiotic Crossing Over in Mice, as an E3 SUMO Ligase
Genes 2010, 1(3), 440-451; doi:10.3390/genes1030440
Received: 11 October 2010 / Revised: 10 November 2010 / Accepted: 17 November 2010 / Published: 2 December 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (473 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The RING domain-containing protein CCNB1IP1 (Cyclin B1 Interacting Protein 1) is a putative ubiquitin E3 ligase that is essential for chiasmata formation, and hence fertility, in mice. Previous studies in cultured cells indicated that CCNB1IP1 targets Cyclin B for degradation, thus playing [...] Read more.
The RING domain-containing protein CCNB1IP1 (Cyclin B1 Interacting Protein 1) is a putative ubiquitin E3 ligase that is essential for chiasmata formation, and hence fertility, in mice. Previous studies in cultured cells indicated that CCNB1IP1 targets Cyclin B for degradation, thus playing a role in cell cycle regulation. Mice homozygous for a mutant allele (mei4) of Ccnb1ip1 display no detectable phenotype other than meiotic failure from an absence of chiasmata. CCNB1IP1 is not conserved in key model organisms such as yeast and Drosophila, and there are no features of the protein that implicate clear mechanisms for a role in recombination. To gain insight into CCNB1IP1’s function in meiotic cells, we raised a specific antibody and determined that the protein appears in pachynema. This indicates that CCNB1IP1 is involved with crossover intermediate maturation, rather than early (leptotene) specification of a subset of SPO11-induced double strand breaks towards the crossover pathway. Additionally, a yeast 2-hybrid (Y2H) screen revealed that CCNB1IP1 interacts with SUMO2 and a set of proteins enriched for consensus sumoylation sites. The Y2H studies, combined with scrutiny of CCNB1IP1 domains, implicate this protein as an E3 ligase of the sumoylation cascade. We hypothesize CCNB1IP1 represents a novel meiosis-specific SUMO E3 ligase critical to resolution of recombination intermediates into mature chiasmata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Mammalian Meiosis)
Open AccessArticle A Global Expression Switch Marks Pachytene Initiation during Mouse Male Meiosis
Genes 2010, 1(3), 469-483; doi:10.3390/genes1030469
Received: 18 October 2010 / Revised: 19 November 2010 / Accepted: 1 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (709 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Male spermatogenesis is an essential and complex process necessary to gain totipotency and allow a whole new organism to develop upon fertilization. While single-gene based studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying spermatogenesis, detailed global profiling of all the key meiotic [...] Read more.
Male spermatogenesis is an essential and complex process necessary to gain totipotency and allow a whole new organism to develop upon fertilization. While single-gene based studies have provided insights into the mechanisms underlying spermatogenesis, detailed global profiling of all the key meiotic stages is required to fully define these processes. Here, by isolating highly enriched mouse meiotic cell populations, we have generated a comprehensive gene expression atlas of mammalian meiosis. Our data define unique signatures for the specific stages of meiosis, including global chromosome X inactivation and reactivation. The data also reveal profound switches in global gene expression at the initiation of pachynema that are reminiscent of the commitment to meiosis observed in budding yeast. Overall, this meiotic atlas provides an exhaustive blueprint and resource for mammalian gametogenesis and meiosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Mammalian Meiosis)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Mouse Cohesin-Associated Protein PDS5B Is Expressed in Testicular Cells and Is Associated with the Meiotic Chromosome Axes
Genes 2010, 1(3), 484-494; doi:10.3390/genes1030484
Received: 2 October 2010 / Revised: 18 November 2010 / Accepted: 1 December 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During the first meiotic prophase, the cohesin complex is localized to the chromosome axis and contributes to chromosome organization, pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The PDS5 protein, an accessory factor of the cohesin complex, is known to be a component of meiotic chromosome [...] Read more.
During the first meiotic prophase, the cohesin complex is localized to the chromosome axis and contributes to chromosome organization, pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The PDS5 protein, an accessory factor of the cohesin complex, is known to be a component of meiotic chromosome cores in fungi and to be implicated in meiotic chromosome structure and function. We found by immunoblotting experiments that a mammalian PDS5 protein, PDS5B, is abundantly expressed in mouse testis compared to other tissues. Immunofluorescence labeling experiments revealed that PDS5B is highly expressed in spermatogonia and that most PDS5B is depleted from chromatin as cells enter meiosis. During the first meiotic prophase, PDS5B associates with the axial cores of chromosomes. The axial association of PDS5B was observed also in the absence of synaptonemal complex proteins, such as SYCP1 and SYCP3, suggesting that PDS5B is an integral part of the chromosome axis as defined by the cohesin complex. These results suggest that PDS5B modulates cohesin functions in spermatocytes as well as in spermatogonia, contributing to meiotic chromosome structure and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Mammalian Meiosis)
Open AccessArticle Synaptonemal Complex Length Variation in Wild-Type Male Mice
Genes 2010, 1(3), 505-520; doi:10.3390/genes1030505
Received: 18 October 2010 / Revised: 18 November 2010 / Accepted: 8 December 2010 / Published: 15 December 2010
PDF Full-text (424 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Meiosis yields haploid gametes following two successive divisions of a germ cell in the absence of intervening DNA replication. Balanced segregation of homologous chromosomes in Meiosis I is aided by a proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC). The objective of this study was [...] Read more.
Meiosis yields haploid gametes following two successive divisions of a germ cell in the absence of intervening DNA replication. Balanced segregation of homologous chromosomes in Meiosis I is aided by a proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC). The objective of this study was to determine total average autosomal SC lengths in spermatocytes in three commonly used mouse strains (129S4/SvJae, C57BL/6J, and BALB/c). Our experiments revealed that the total autosomal SC length in BALB/c spermatocytes is 9% shorter than in the two other strains. Shorter SCs are also observed in spermatocytes of (BALB/c × 129S4/SvJae) and (C57BL/6J × BALB/c) F1 hybrids suggesting a genetic basis of SC length regulation. Along these lines, we studied expression of a selected group of genes implicated in meiotic chromosome architecture. We found that BALB/c testes express up to 6-fold less of Rec8 mRNA and 4-fold less of REC8 protein. These results suggest that the mechanism that defines the SC length operates via a REC8‑dependent process. Finally, our results demonstrate that genetic background can have an effect on meiotic studies in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Mammalian Meiosis)

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Role of Cell Division Autoantigen 1 (CDA1) in Cell Proliferation and Fibrosis
Genes 2010, 1(3), 335-348; doi:10.3390/genes1030335
Received: 5 August 2010 / Revised: 3 September 2010 / Accepted: 17 September 2010 / Published: 30 September 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (208 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell Division Autoantigen 1 (CDA1) was discovered following screening a human expression library with serum from a patient with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. CDA1, encoded by TSPYL2 on the X chromosome, shares anti-proliferative and pro‑fibrotic properties with TGF-b. It inhibits cell growth through [...] Read more.
Cell Division Autoantigen 1 (CDA1) was discovered following screening a human expression library with serum from a patient with Discoid Lupus Erythematosus. CDA1, encoded by TSPYL2 on the X chromosome, shares anti-proliferative and pro‑fibrotic properties with TGF-b. It inhibits cell growth through p53, pERK1/2 and p21‑mediated pathways and is implicated in tumorigenesis and the DNA damage response. Its pro-fibrotic property is mediated through cross-talk with TGF-b that results in upregulation of extracellular matrix proteins. The latter properties have identified a key role for CDA1 in diabetes associated atherosclerosis. These dual properties place CDA1 as an attractive molecular target for treating tumors and vascular fibrosis including atherosclerosis and other vascular disorders associated with enhanced TGF-β action and tissue scarring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The TSPY Gene Family)
Open AccessReview Gene Conversion and Evolution of Gene Families: An Overview
Genes 2010, 1(3), 349-356; doi:10.3390/genes1030349
Received: 16 August 2010 / Revised: 27 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 30 September 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (45 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The importance of gene conversion for the evolution of gene families is reviewed. Four problems concerning gene conversion, i.e., concerted evolution, generation of useful variation, deleterious effects, and relation to neofunctionalization, are discussed by surveying reported examples of evolving gene families. [...] Read more.
The importance of gene conversion for the evolution of gene families is reviewed. Four problems concerning gene conversion, i.e., concerted evolution, generation of useful variation, deleterious effects, and relation to neofunctionalization, are discussed by surveying reported examples of evolving gene families. Emphasis is given toward understanding interactive effects of gene conversion and natural selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes)
Open AccessReview Programming Pluripotent Precursor Cells Derived from Xenopus Embryos to Generate Specific Tissues and Organs
Genes 2010, 1(3), 413-426; doi:10.3390/genes1030413
Received: 8 October 2010 / Revised: 21 October 2010 / Accepted: 5 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Xenopus embryos provide a rich source of pluripotent cells that can be differentiated into functional organs. Since the molecular principles of vertebrate organogenesis appear to be conserved between Xenopus and mammals, this system can provide useful guidelines for the directional manipulation of [...] Read more.
Xenopus embryos provide a rich source of pluripotent cells that can be differentiated into functional organs. Since the molecular principles of vertebrate organogenesis appear to be conserved between Xenopus and mammals, this system can provide useful guidelines for the directional manipulation of human embryonic stem cells. Pluripotent Xenopus cells can be easily isolated from the animal pole of blastula stage Xenopus embryos. These so called “animal cap” cells represent prospective ectodermal cells, but give rise to endodermal, mesodermal and neuro-ectodermal derivatives if treated with the appropriate factors. These factors include evolutionary conserved modulators of the key developmental signal transduction pathways that can be supplied either by mRNA microinjection or direct application of recombinant proteins. This relatively simple system has added to our understanding of pancreas, liver, kidney, eye and heart development. In particular, recent studies have used animal cap cells to generate ectopic eyes and hearts, setting the stage for future work aimed at programming pluripotent cells for regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural and Induced Pluripotency in Stem Cells)
Open AccessReview Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion
Genes 2010, 1(3), 427-439; doi:10.3390/genes1030427
Received: 27 September 2010 / Revised: 12 November 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 29 November 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gene conversion (conversion), the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, [...] Read more.
Gene conversion (conversion), the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template) information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes)
Open AccessReview Genomic and Population-Level Effects of Gene Conversion in Caenorhabditis Paralogs
Genes 2010, 1(3), 452-468; doi:10.3390/genes1030452
Received: 25 October 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 6 December 2010 / Published: 9 December 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (270 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interlocus gene conversion, the nonreciprocal exchange of genetic material between genes, is facilitated by high levels of sequence identity between DNA sequences and has the dual effect of homogenizing intergenic sequences while increasing intragenic variation. Gene conversion can have important consequences for [...] Read more.
Interlocus gene conversion, the nonreciprocal exchange of genetic material between genes, is facilitated by high levels of sequence identity between DNA sequences and has the dual effect of homogenizing intergenic sequences while increasing intragenic variation. Gene conversion can have important consequences for the evolution of paralogs subsequent to gene duplication, as well as result in misinterpretations regarding their evolution. We review the current state of research on gene conversion in paralogs within Caenorhabditis elegans and its congeneric species, including the relative rates of gene conversion, the range of observable conversion tracts, the genomic variables that strongly influence the frequency of gene conversion and its contribution to concerted evolution of multigene families. Additionally, we discuss recent studies that examine the phenotypic and population-genetic effects of interlocus gene conversion between the sex-determination locus fog-2 and its paralog ftr-1 in natural and experimental populations of C. elegans. In light of the limitations of gene conversion detection methods that rely solely on the statistical distribution of identical nucleotides between paralogs, we suggest that analyses of gene conversion in C. elegans take advantage of mutation accumulation experiments and sequencing projects of related Caenorhabditis species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes)
Open AccessReview Cohesin in Oocytes—Tough Enough for Mammalian Meiosis?
Genes 2010, 1(3), 495-504; doi:10.3390/genes1030495
Received: 11 October 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 27 November 2010 / Published: 13 December 2010
PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sister chromatid cohesion is essential for cell division. During meiosis, it is also required for proper synapsis of pairs of sister chromatids and for chiasma formation and maintenance. Since mammalian oocytes remain arrested in late prophase for a very long period—up to [...] Read more.
Sister chromatid cohesion is essential for cell division. During meiosis, it is also required for proper synapsis of pairs of sister chromatids and for chiasma formation and maintenance. Since mammalian oocytes remain arrested in late prophase for a very long period—up to five decades in humans—the preservation of cohesion throughout this period is a formidable challenge. Mouse models with cohesin deficiencies and aging wild-type mice showed that this challenge is not fully met: cohesion weakens and deteriorates with increasing age. These recent findings have highly significant implications for our comprehension of the genesis of aneuploidies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Mammalian Meiosis)
Open AccessReview Initiation of Meiotic Recombination in Mammals
Genes 2010, 1(3), 521-549; doi:10.3390/genes1030521
Received: 1 November 2010 / Revised: 22 November 2010 / Accepted: 3 December 2010 / Published: 22 December 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). DSB repair promotes homologous interactions and pairing and leads to the formation of crossovers (COs), which are required for the proper reductional segregation at the first meiotic division. [...] Read more.
Meiotic recombination is initiated by the induction of programmed DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). DSB repair promotes homologous interactions and pairing and leads to the formation of crossovers (COs), which are required for the proper reductional segregation at the first meiotic division. In mammals, several hundred DSBs are generated at the beginning of meiotic prophase by the catalytic activity of SPO11. Currently it is not well understood how the frequency and timing of DSB formation and their localization are regulated. Several approaches in humans and mice have provided an extensive description of the localization of initiation events based on CO mapping, leading to the identification and characterization of preferred sites (hotspots) of initiation. This review presents the current knowledge about the proteins known to be involved in this process, the sites where initiation takes place, and the factors that control hotspot localization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics of Mammalian Meiosis)
Open AccessReview Gene Conversion in Human Genetic Disease
Genes 2010, 1(3), 550-563; doi:10.3390/genes1030550
Received: 15 October 2010 / Revised: 12 November 2010 / Accepted: 17 November 2010 / Published: 22 December 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Gene conversion is a specific type of homologous recombination that involves the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a ‘donor’ sequence to a highly homologous ‘acceptor’. We have recently reviewed the molecular mechanisms underlying gene conversion, explored the key part that this [...] Read more.
Gene conversion is a specific type of homologous recombination that involves the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a ‘donor’ sequence to a highly homologous ‘acceptor’. We have recently reviewed the molecular mechanisms underlying gene conversion, explored the key part that this process has played in fashioning extant human genes, and performed a meta-analysis of gene-conversion events known to have caused human genetic disease. Here we shall briefly summarize some of the latest developments in the study of pathogenic gene conversion events, including (i) the emerging idea of minimal efficient sequence homology (MESH) for homologous recombination, (ii) the local DNA sequence features that appear to predispose to gene conversion, (iii) a mechanistic comparison of gene conversion and transient hypermutability, and (iv) recently reported examples of pathogenic gene conversion events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes)

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Genes Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
genes@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Genes
Back to Top