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Genes 2010, 1(3), 427-439; doi:10.3390/genes1030427
Review

Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

Received: 27 September 2010; in revised form: 12 November 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 29 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes)
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Abstract: Gene conversion (conversion), the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template) information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.
Keywords: double-strand break; recombination; crossover; gene conversion; ectopic gene conversion; SDSA; BIR; synaptonemal complex; cohesin; mismatch repair double-strand break; recombination; crossover; gene conversion; ectopic gene conversion; SDSA; BIR; synaptonemal complex; cohesin; mismatch repair
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hastings, P. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion. Genes 2010, 1, 427-439.

AMA Style

Hastings P. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion. Genes. 2010; 1(3):427-439.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hastings, P.J. 2010. "Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion." Genes 1, no. 3: 427-439.


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