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Nutrients, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2017)

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Cover Story The Western diet promotes a pro-inflammatory environment and causes an increase in systemic and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Major Differences in Diet across Three Linguistic Regions of Switzerland: Results from the First National Nutrition Survey menuCH
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1163; doi:10.3390/nu9111163
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 13 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
Switzerland is a multilingual country located between Germany, France and Italy, which differ by dietary habits and related outcomes. We explored differences in food consumption as well as compliance to the Swiss food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) across the German-, French-, and Italian-speaking regions.
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Switzerland is a multilingual country located between Germany, France and Italy, which differ by dietary habits and related outcomes. We explored differences in food consumption as well as compliance to the Swiss food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) across the German-, French-, and Italian-speaking regions. The 2014–2015 nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among a stratified random sample of 2057 adults aged 18 to 75 years. Trained dietitians assessed food consumption via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls using the international validated software GloboDiet®. Recorded foods and beverages were classified into six groups and 31 subgroups relevant for assessing compliance to the FBDG (Swiss Food Pyramid). Usual daily intake distributions were modelled and weighted for sampling design, non-response, weekdays and season. Participation rate was 38%. Significant differences across regions were observed in 18 of 31 food subgroups (p ≤ 0.01). Weighted mean daily intakes in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions were, respectively, 245 g, 155 g, 140 g for soft drinks, 273 g, 214 g, 135 g for coffee, 127 g, 72 g, 109 g for milk, 32 g, 45 g, 43 g for red meat, 18 g, 29 g, 34 g for fish/seafood, 8.1 g, 6.4 g, 3.7 g for butter, and 206 g, 214 g, 168 g for vegetables. The seven FBDGs were followed by <1% of the population. Four in 10 participants met ≥3 FBDG. Eighteen percent of participants ate ≥5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, without regional differences. Food consumption substantially differed across the three linguistic regions of Switzerland. Adherence to FBDG was uniformly low. This highlights the potential influence of culture on diet. Nutritional education along with public health interventions are needed and may be most efficient if regionally targeted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Diet Quality Associated with Total Sodium Intake among US Adults Aged ≥18 Years—National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2012
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1164; doi:10.3390/nu9111164
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142) from adults aged
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Diet quality or macronutrient composition of total daily sodium intake (dNa) <2300 mg/day in the United States (US) is unknown. Using data from 2011–2014 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), we examined 24-h dietary recalls (n = 10,142) from adults aged ≥18 years and investigated how diet composition and quality are associated with dNa. Diet quality was assessed using components of macronutrients and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Associations were tested using linear regression analysis adjusted for total energy (kcal), age, gender, and race/ethnicity. One-day dNa in the lower quartiles were more likely reported among women, older adults (≥65 years old), and lower quartiles of total energy (kcal) (p-values ≤ 0.001). With increasing dNa, there was an increase in the mean protein, fiber, and total fat densities, while total carbohydrates densities decreased. As dNa increased, meat protein, refined grains, dairy, and total vegetables, greens and beans densities increased; while total fruit and whole fruit densities decreased. Modified HEI-2010 total score (total score without sodium component) increased as dNa increased (adjusted coefficient: 0.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.07, 0.15). Although diet quality, based on modified HEI-2010 total score, increased on days with greater dNa, there is much room for improvement with mean diet quality of about half of the optimal level. Full article
Open AccessArticle Clinical Effect of IRT-5 Probiotics on Immune Modulation of Autoimmunity or Alloimmunity in the Eye
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1166; doi:10.3390/nu9111166
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
Background: Although the relation of the gut microbiota to a development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has been investigated in various animal models, there are limited studies that evaluate the effect of probiotics in the autoimmune eye disease. Therefore, we aimed to investigate
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Background: Although the relation of the gut microbiota to a development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has been investigated in various animal models, there are limited studies that evaluate the effect of probiotics in the autoimmune eye disease. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of IRT-5 probiotics consisting of Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Bifidobacterium bifidum, and Streptococcus thermophilus on the autoimmunity of uveitis and dry eye and alloimmunity of corneal transplantation. Methods: Experimental autoimmune uveitis was induced by subcutaneous immunization with interphotoreceptor-binding protein and intraperitoneal injection of pertussis toxin in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. For an autoimmune dry eye model, 12-weeks-old NOD.B10.H2b mice were used. Donor cornea of B6 mice was transplanted into BALB/C mice. IRT-5 probiotics or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were administered for three weeks immediately after induction of uveitis or transplantation. The inflammation score of the retinal tissues, dry eye manifestations (corneal staining and tear secretion), and graft survival were measured in each model. The changes of T cells were evaluated in drainage lymph nodes using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results: Retinal histology score in IRT-5 group of uveitis was lower than that in PBS group (p = 0.045). Ocular staining score was lower (p < 0.0001) and tear secretion was higher (p < 0.0001) in the IRT-5 group of NOD.B10.H2b mice than that in the PBS group. However, the graft survival in the IRT-5 group was not different from those of PBS group. The percentage of regulatory T cells was increased in the IRT-5-treated dry eye models (p = 0.032). The percentage of CD8+IL-17hi (p = 0.027) and CD8+ interferon gamma (IFNγ)hi cells (p = 0.022) were significantly decreased in the IRT-5-treated uveitis models and the percentage of CD8+IFNγhi cells was markedly reduced (p = 0.036) in IRT-5-treated dry eye model. Conclusion: Our results suggest that administration of IRT-5 probiotics may modulate clinical manifestations of autoimmunity in the eye, but not on alloimmunity of corneal transplantation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Do Preschools Offer Healthy Beverages to Children? A Nationwide Study in Poland
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1167; doi:10.3390/nu9111167
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
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Abstract
Background: Children’s beverage consumption patterns have received increased attention in light of the obesity epidemic in this group. In day care centers (DCCs), children spend up to 10 h a day, and typically consume half to three quarters of their daily food intake.
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Background: Children’s beverage consumption patterns have received increased attention in light of the obesity epidemic in this group. In day care centers (DCCs), children spend up to 10 h a day, and typically consume half to three quarters of their daily food intake. The purpose of the study was to investigate what beverages are typically served to children in preschools in Poland, and to evaluate the practices associated with adding sugar and other sweetening agents to beverages. Methods: Direct interviews with preschools staff were conducted with a questionnaire regarding offered beverages and adding sugar and other sweetening agents. The menu of 10 consecutive days and inventory reports were analyzed to verify information. Results: A total of 720 preschools were included in the study. Cocoa and milk coffee substitute were served in 95% of preschools, followed by compote (92%), tea (84%), fruit/herbal tea (73%) and water (69%). Water was the only beverage available between meals (93% DCCs). 86% of preschools added sugar to tea/cocoa/coffee substitute drinks, and 74% to compote. Conclusions: In the majority of preschools, beverages which are not recommended were offered. Such an assortment of beverages and common practice of sweetening can increase the amount of added sugar in a children diet. Nutrition education and legal regulations concerning the assortment of beverages served in preschools are urgently needed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Muscle Strength and Optimal Individual Post-Activation Potentiation Time of the Upper Body in Canoeists
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1169; doi:10.3390/nu9111169
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Creatine supplementation reduces the impact of muscle fatigue on post-activation potentiation (PAP) of the lower body, but its effects on the upper body remain unknown. This study examined the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength, explosive power, and optimal individual PAP time
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Creatine supplementation reduces the impact of muscle fatigue on post-activation potentiation (PAP) of the lower body, but its effects on the upper body remain unknown. This study examined the effects of creatine supplementation on muscle strength, explosive power, and optimal individual PAP time of the upper body during a set of complex training bouts in canoeists. Seventeen male high school canoeists performed a bench row for one repetition at maximum strength and conducted complex training bouts to determine the optimal individual timing of PAP and distance of overhead medicine ball throw before and after the supplementation. Subjects were assigned to a creatine or placebo group, and later consumed 20 g of creatine or carboxymethyl cellulose per day for six days. After supplementation, the maximal strength in the creatine group significantly increased (p < 0.05). The optimal individual PAP time in the creatine group was significantly earlier than the pre-supplementation times (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in explosive power for either group. Our findings support the notion that creatine supplementation increases maximal strength and shortens the optimal individual PAP time of the upper body in high school athletes, but has no effect on explosive power. Moreover, it was found that the recovery time between a bench row and an overhead medicine ball throw in a complex training bout is an individual phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessCommunication Dietary Compound Resveratrol Is a Pan-BET Bromodomain Inhibitor
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1172; doi:10.3390/nu9111172
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
The chemopreventive and anticancer effects of resveratrol (RSV) are widely reported in the literature. Specifically, mechanisms involving epigenetic regulation are promising targets to regulate tumor development. Bromodomains act as epigenetic readers by recognizing lysine acetylation on histone tails and boosting gene expression in
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The chemopreventive and anticancer effects of resveratrol (RSV) are widely reported in the literature. Specifically, mechanisms involving epigenetic regulation are promising targets to regulate tumor development. Bromodomains act as epigenetic readers by recognizing lysine acetylation on histone tails and boosting gene expression in order to regulate tissue-specific transcription. In this work, we showed that RSV is a pan-BET inhibitor. Using Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF), we showed that RSV at 100 µM increased the melting temperature (∆Tm) of BET bromodomains by around 2.0 °C. The micromolar dissociation constant (Kd) range was characterized using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). The RSV Kd value accounted to 6.6 µM in case of BRD4(1). Molecular docking proposed the binding mode of RSV against BRD4(1) mimicking the acetyl-lysine interactions. All these results suggest that RSV can also recognize epigenetic readers domains by interacting with BET bromodomains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Social Demography of Transitional Dietary Patterns in Thailand: Prospective Evidence from the Thai Cohort Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1173; doi:10.3390/nu9111173
Received: 23 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
In recent decades, a health-risk transition with changes in diet and lifestyle in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) led to an emergence of chronic diseases. These trends in Southeast Asian LMICs are not well studied. Here, we report on transitional dietary patterns and
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In recent decades, a health-risk transition with changes in diet and lifestyle in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) led to an emergence of chronic diseases. These trends in Southeast Asian LMICs are not well studied. Here, we report on transitional dietary patterns and their socio-demographic predictors in Thai adults. Dietary data in 2015 were from a random sub-sample (N = 1075) of 42,785 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) members who completed all three TCS surveys (2005, 2009, 2013). Principle Component Analysis identified dietary patterns and multivariable linear regression assessed associations (Beta estimates (ß) and confidence intervals (CIs)) between socio-demographic factors and dietary intake pattern scores. Four dietary patterns emerged: Healthy Transitional, Fatty Western, Highly Processed, and Traditional. In women, higher income (≥30,001 Baht/month vs. ≤10,000) and managerial work (vs. office assistant) was associated with lower scores for Traditional (ß = −0.67, 95% CI −1.15, −0.19) and Fatty Western diets (ß = −0.60, 95% CI −1.14, −0.05), respectively. University education associated with lower Highly Processed (ß = −0.57, 95% CI −0.98, −0.17) and higher Traditional diet scores (ß = 0.42, 95% CI 0.03, 0.81). In men and women, urban residence associated with higher Fatty Western and lower Traditional diets. Local policy makers should promote healthy diets, particularly in urban residents, in men, and in low-SEP adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Altered Metabolism of Blood Manganese Is Associated with Low Levels of Hemoglobin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1177; doi:10.3390/nu9111177
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Blood manganese (Mn) level has been reported to be higher in patients with anemia or iron deficiency. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between blood Mn level and anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of
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Blood manganese (Mn) level has been reported to be higher in patients with anemia or iron deficiency. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between blood Mn level and anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 334 patients with CKD who were not treated with dialysis were included in this study. Blood Mn level and serum markers regarding anemia, renal function, and nutrition were measured and analyzed. Median blood Mn level was 8.30 (interquartile range(IQR): 5.27–11.63) μg/L. Univariate linear regression showed that blood Mn level was correlated with age (β = −0.049, p < 0.001), smoking (β = −1.588, p = 0.009), hypertension (β = −1.470, p = 0.006), serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) (β = 0.025, p < 0.001), serum transferrin (β = 0.029, p < 0.001), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; β = 0.036, p < 0.001). Results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that beta coefficient of hemoglobin was 0.847 (p < 0.001) for blood Mn level in all participants after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and eGFR. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis with robust variance after adjusting for gender, age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, eGFR, and nutritional markers showed that higher blood Mn level (per 1 μg/L increase) was associated with decreased prevalence of anemia (PR 0.974, 95% CI: 0.957 to 0.992, p = 0.005). Taken together, our results demonstrate that blood Mn level is positively associated with hemoglobin level in CKD patients. This might provide important information in the understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD-related anemia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Recovery Effects of Oral Administration of Glucosylceramide and Beet Extract on Skin Barrier Destruction by UVB in Hairless Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1178; doi:10.3390/nu9111178
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Purified glucosylceramide from beet extract (beet GlcCer) and beet extract containing an equal amount of GlcCer were administered orally to ultra violet B (UVB)-irradiated mice, and differences in the protective effects against skin barrier dysfunction caused by UVB irradiation were compared. In the
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Purified glucosylceramide from beet extract (beet GlcCer) and beet extract containing an equal amount of GlcCer were administered orally to ultra violet B (UVB)-irradiated mice, and differences in the protective effects against skin barrier dysfunction caused by UVB irradiation were compared. In the beet GlcCer group, epidermal thickening and the decrease in stratum corneum (SC) ceramide content caused by UVB irradiation were reduced. In the group that was orally administered beet extract containing glucosylceramide, effects similar to those in the beet GlcCer group were observed. Oral administration of beet GlcCer had no obvious effects against an increase in TEWL or decrease in SC water content after UVB irradiation, but there was improvement in the beet extract group. Oral administration of beet GlcCer is effective in improving skin barrier function in UVB-irradiated mice. Beet extract contains constituents other than GlcCer that are also effective in improving skin barrier function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Relative Influence of Socioeconomic, Psychological and Sensory Characteristics, Physical Activity and Diet on 5-Year Weight Gain in French Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1179; doi:10.3390/nu9111179
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Individual characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity influence weight status; however, the contribution of each factor to weight change has not been studied. The objective was to confirm a conceptual framework by simultaneously assessing the relative influence of socioeconomic, psychological and sensory characteristics,
[...] Read more.
Individual characteristics, dietary intake and physical activity influence weight status; however, the contribution of each factor to weight change has not been studied. The objective was to confirm a conceptual framework by simultaneously assessing the relative influence of socioeconomic, psychological and sensory characteristics, physical activity, and dietary intake on five-year weight gain in French adults. Individual characteristics, physical activity, and dietary data were assessed at baseline in 8014 participants in the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Self-reported anthropometric data were collected at baseline and five years later. Structural equation models, stratified by baseline body mass index (BMI), were used to perform analyses. Dietary restraint was a direct predictor of weight gain, with a stronger effect than age or intake of energy-dense foods, both in non-overweight and overweight participants. In non-overweight individuals only, intake of nutrient-dense foods and physical activity were inversely associated with weight gain. Regarding dietary intake, fat liking was the most important predictor of nutrient-dense food intake and was also related to energy-dense food intake. In these models, dietary restraint appears to be a direct predictor of weight gain and fat liking is a strong determinant of dietary intake. The influence of dietary restraint on weight gain, not explained by diet, warrants further investigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of a Partially Hydrolysed Whey Infant Formula Supplemented with Starch and Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 on Regurgitation and Gastric Motility
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1181; doi:10.3390/nu9111181
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Functional regurgitation (FR) is common in early infancy and represents a major drain on healthcare resources. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a formula containing partially hydrolysed, 100% whey protein, starch and Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) on gastric emptying rate
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Functional regurgitation (FR) is common in early infancy and represents a major drain on healthcare resources. This double-blind, randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of a formula containing partially hydrolysed, 100% whey protein, starch and Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) on gastric emptying rate (GErate) and regurgitation frequency in infants with FR. Enrolled infants were randomly allocated to receive either the test formula or a standard starter formula for four weeks. Ultrasound GErate assessment was performed at baseline (week 0) and at week 4; the number of regurgitations, feed volumes and potential adverse events were recorded in a daily diary. Eighty infants aged four weeks to five months were enrolled; 72 (test group = 37; control group = 35) completed the study. Compared to controls, the test group showed greater percentage changes in GErate (12.3% vs. 9.1%, p < 0.01). Mean daily regurgitations decreased from 7.4 (0.8) at week 0 to 2.6 (1.0) at week 4 in the test group and from 7.5 (1.0) to 5.3 (1.0) in controls (between-group difference, p < 0.0001). Compared to a standard formula, a starch-thickened partially hydrolysed whey protein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus reuteri is more effective in decreasing the frequency of regurgitation and improving GErate, and can be of benefit to infants with FR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Novel High-Protein Functional Food Products as Part of a Calorie-Restricted Diet to Reduce Insulin Resistance and Increase Lean Body Mass in Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1182; doi:10.3390/nu9111182
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Significant reductions in insulin resistance (IR) can be achieved by either calorie restriction or by the increase of lean mass. However, calorie restriction usually results in significant loss of lean mass. A 6-week randomized controlled feeding trial was conducted to determine if a
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Significant reductions in insulin resistance (IR) can be achieved by either calorie restriction or by the increase of lean mass. However, calorie restriction usually results in significant loss of lean mass. A 6-week randomized controlled feeding trial was conducted to determine if a calorie-restricted, high-protein diet (~125 g protein/day consumed evenly throughout the day) using novel functional foods would be more successful for reducing IR in comparison to a conventional diet (~80 g protein/day) with a similar level of calorie restriction. Healthy adults (age 20–75 years; body mass index, 20–42 kg/m2) with raised triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratios were randomly assigned to the control group (CON: test foods prepared using gluten-free commercial pasta and cereal) or to the high-protein group (HPR: test foods prepared using novel high-protein pasta and cereal both rich in wheat gluten). Mean weight loss did not differ between groups (−2.7 ± 2.6 and −3.2 ± 3.0 kg for CON (n = 11) and HPR (n = 10) respectively, p = 0.801); however, the 6-week change in fat-free mass (FFM) differed significantly between groups (−0.5 ± 1.5 and +1.5 ± 3.8 kg for CON and HPR respectively, p = 0.008). IR improved in HPR vs. CON participants (homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance [HOMAIR] change: −1.7 ± 1.4 and −0.7 ± 0.7 respectively; p = 0.020). The change in HOMA-IR was related to the change in FFM among participants (r = −0.511, p = 0.021). Thus, a high-protein diet using novel functional foods combined with modest calorie restriction was 140% more effective for reducing HOMA-IR in healthy adults compared to a lower protein, standard diet with an equal level of calorie restriction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Skullcap (Scutellaria Baicalensis) Hexane Fraction Inhibits the Permeation of Ovalbumin and Regulates Th1/2 Immune Responses
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1184; doi:10.3390/nu9111184
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. In our previous study, we found that skullcap could inhibit allergen permeation and regulate Th1/2 immune balance. To reveal the key fractions and components of skullcap, we fractionated skullcap
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Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) is well known for its anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. In our previous study, we found that skullcap could inhibit allergen permeation and regulate Th1/2 immune balance. To reveal the key fractions and components of skullcap, we fractionated skullcap extract into five fractions: hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fraction. Among these fractions, the hexane fraction significantly suppressed the production of Th2-mediated cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-4, 5, 10 and 13) and increased Th1-mediated cytokines (Interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, the hexane fraction inhibited the permeation of ovalbumin (OVA), used as an allergen, across the intestinal epithelial cell monolayer. To confirm the active compounds in the hexane fraction, fatty acids were analyzed. Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 (>59.7%)) was identified as the most important fatty acid in the skullcap hexane fraction. LA significantly suppressed IL-4 production and increased IFN-γ secretion, as well as inhibiting OVA permeation. Thus, LA significantly diminished the permeation of allergen by enhancing intestinal barrier function and regulated allergic responses to maintain Th1/Th2 immune balance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Factors Associated with Plasma Thyroid Peroxidase and Thyroglobulin Antibodies
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1186; doi:10.3390/nu9111186
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
The knowledge about dietary habits and their influence in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease is insufficient. The aim of this study was to analyse the association of dietary factors and plasma thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and/or thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). The study enrolled
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The knowledge about dietary habits and their influence in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease is insufficient. The aim of this study was to analyse the association of dietary factors and plasma thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) and/or thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-Ab). The study enrolled 1887 participants originating from the South Croatia. Participants with elevated plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab were defined as cases (n = 462) and those with TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab within referent values were defined as controls (n = 1425). Dietary intake was evaluated according to a food frequency questionnaire containing 58 food items. Principal component analysis was used to group food items into dietary groups. We used logistic regression analysis to examine dietary groups associated with positive plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab. The results indicate that the dietary group with frequent consumption of animal fats and butter is associated with positive plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab (p = 0.01). The dietary group with frequent consumption of vegetables as well as the dietary group with high consumption of dried fruit, nuts, and muesli are associated with negative findings of TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab (p = 0.048 and p = 0.02, respectively). We showed that the anti-inflammatory dietary groups are associated with the negative findings of plasma TPO-Ab and/or Tg-Ab. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Melatonin on Glucose Homeostasis, Antioxidant Ability, and Adipokine Secretion in ICR Mice with NA/STZ-Induced Hyperglycemia
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1187; doi:10.3390/nu9111187
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
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Abstract
Diabetes is often associated with decreased melatonin level. The aim was to investigate the effects of different dosage of melatonin on glucose hemostasis, antioxidant ability and adipokines secretion in diabetic institute for cancer research (ICR) mice. Forty animals were randomly divided into five
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Diabetes is often associated with decreased melatonin level. The aim was to investigate the effects of different dosage of melatonin on glucose hemostasis, antioxidant ability and adipokines secretion in diabetic institute for cancer research (ICR) mice. Forty animals were randomly divided into five groups including control (C), diabetic (D), low-dosage (L), medium-dosage (M), and high-dosage (H) groups. Groups L, M, and H, respectively, received oral melatonin at 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg of BW (body weight) daily after inducing hyperglycemia by nicotinamide (NA)/ streptozotocin (STZ). After the six-week intervention, results showed that melatonin administration increased insulin level and performed lower area under the curve (AUC) in H group (p < 0.05). Melatonin could lower hepatic Malondialdehyde (MDA) level in all melatonin-treated groups and increase superoxide dismutase activity in H group (p < 0.05). Melatonin-treated groups revealed significant higher adiponectin in L group, and lower leptin/adiponectin ratio and leptin in M and H groups (p < 0.05). Melatonin could lower cholesterol and triglyceride in liver and decrease plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in L group, and increase plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in H group (p < 0.05). Above all, melatonin could decrease oxidative stress, increase the adiponectin level and improve dyslipidemia, especially in H group. These data support melatonin possibly being a helpful aid for treating hyperglycemia-related symptoms. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dietary Magnesium May Be Protective for Aging of Bone and Skeletal Muscle in Middle and Younger Older Age Men and Women: Cross-Sectional Findings from the UK Biobank Cohort
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1189; doi:10.3390/nu9111189
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Although fragility fractures, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and frailty are becoming more prevalent in our aging society the treatment options are limited and preventative strategies are needed. Despite magnesium being integral to bone and muscle physiology, the relationship between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle and
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Although fragility fractures, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and frailty are becoming more prevalent in our aging society the treatment options are limited and preventative strategies are needed. Despite magnesium being integral to bone and muscle physiology, the relationship between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle and bone health has not been investigated concurrently to date. We analysed cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium and skeletal muscle mass (as fat free mass—FFM), grip strength, and bone density (BMD) in 156,575 men and women aged 39–72 years from the UK Biobank cohort. FFM was measured with bioelectrical impedance and was expressed as the percentage of body weight (FFM%) or as divided by body mass index (FFMBMI). Adjusted mean grip strength, FFM%, FFMBMI, and BMD were calculated according to quintiles of dietary magnesium, while correcting for covariates. Significant inter-quintile differences across intakes of magnesium existed in men and women, respectively, of 1.1% and 2.4% for grip strength, 3.0% and 3.6% for FFM%, 5.1% and 5.5% for FFMBMI, and 2.9% and 0.9% for BMD. These associations are as great or greater than annual measured losses of these musculoskeletal outcomes, indicating potential clinical significance. Our study suggests that dietary magnesium may play a role in musculoskeletal health and has relevance for population prevention strategies for sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle The Dietary Furocoumarin Imperatorin Increases Plasma GLP-1 Levels in Type 1-Like Diabetic Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1192; doi:10.3390/nu9111192
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Imperatorin, a dietary furocoumarin, is found not only in medicinal plants, but also in popular culinary herbs, such as parsley and fennel. Recently, imperatorin has been shown to activate GPR119 in cells. Another GPR, GPR131, also called TGR5 or G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor
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Imperatorin, a dietary furocoumarin, is found not only in medicinal plants, but also in popular culinary herbs, such as parsley and fennel. Recently, imperatorin has been shown to activate GPR119 in cells. Another GPR, GPR131, also called TGR5 or G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1), is known to regulate glucose metabolism. Additionally, TGR5 activation increases glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) secretion to lower blood sugar levels in animals. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether the effects of imperatorin on GLP-1 secretion are mediated by TGR5. First, we transfected cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells) with the TGR5 gene. Glucose uptake was confirmed in the transfected cells using a fluorescent indicator. Moreover, NCI-H716 cells, which secrete GLP-1, were used to investigate the changes in calcium concentrations and GLP-1 levels. In addition, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1-like diabetic rats were used to identify the effects of imperatorin in vivo. Imperatorin dose-dependently increased glucose uptake in CHO-K1 cells expressing TGR5. In STZ diabetic rats, similar to the results in NCI-H716 cells, imperatorin induced a marked increase of GLP-1 secretion that was reduced, but not totally abolished, by a dose of triamterene that inhibited TGR5. Moreover, increases in GLP-1 secretion induced by imperatorin and GPR119 activation were shown in NCI-H716 cells. We demonstrated that imperatorin induced GLP-1 secretion via activating TGR5 and GPR119. Therefore, imperatorin shall be considered as a TGR5 and GPR119 agonist. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Stoichiometry of Isoquercitrin Complex with Iron or Copper Is Highly Dependent on Experimental Conditions
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1193; doi:10.3390/nu9111193
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 25 September 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Interaction of flavonoids with transition metals can be partially responsible for their impact on humans. Stoichiometry of the iron/copper complex with a flavonoid glycoside isoquercitrin, a frequent component of food supplements, was assessed using competitive and non-competitive methods in four (patho)physiologically-relevant pH values
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Interaction of flavonoids with transition metals can be partially responsible for their impact on humans. Stoichiometry of the iron/copper complex with a flavonoid glycoside isoquercitrin, a frequent component of food supplements, was assessed using competitive and non-competitive methods in four (patho)physiologically-relevant pH values (4.5. 5.5, 6.8, and 7.5). Isoquercitrin chelated all tested ions (Fe2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, and Cu+) but its affinity for Cu+ ions proved to be very low. In general, the chelation potency dropped with pH lowering. Metal complexes of 1:1 stoichiometry were mostly formed, however, they were not stable and the stoichiometry changed depending on conditions. Isoquercitrin was able to reduce both Cu2+ and Fe3+ ions at low ratios, but its reducing potential was diminished at higher ratios (isoquercitrin to metal) due to the metal chelation. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the need of using multiple different methods for the assessment of chelation potential in moderately-active metal chelators, like flavonoids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Iodine Status on the Recall Rate of the Screening Program for Congenital Hypothyroidism: Findings from Two National Studies in Iran
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1194; doi:10.3390/nu9111194
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 14 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Back ground: Iodine deficiency is one of the important factors in increasing the recall rate in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening programs. The present study assessed whether the iodine status of the general population may predict the recall rate or vice versa. Methods: In
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Back ground: Iodine deficiency is one of the important factors in increasing the recall rate in congenital hypothyroidism (CH) screening programs. The present study assessed whether the iodine status of the general population may predict the recall rate or vice versa. Methods: In the current national study, among 1,382,229 live births delivered between March 2010 and March 2011, 1,288,237 neonates were screened for detecting CH by TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) measurement via heel prick sampling. Simultaneously, a total of 11,280 school-aged children, aged 7–8 years, were selected using random multi-cluster sampling for measurement of urinary iodine. Results: A negative correlation was found between median urinary iodine (MUI) and the recall rate (r = −0.33, p = 0.03). No correlation was found between MUIC (median urinary iodine concentration) and the incidence rate of CH. Linear regression analysis showed a 0.1% increase in the recall rate for a one unit decrease in MUIC (β = −0.11, 95% CI: −0.2, −0.1, p = 0.03). MUIC, at a cut-off point of 144.7 µg/L, was predictive for a recall rate < 3% (p = 0.05). Conclusion: Frequencies of TSH ≥ 5 mU/L may be a more sensitive indicator for iodine status during pregnancy rather than in the general population. As higher recall rates reflect inadequate iodine nutrition, sufficient iodine supplementation is needed to reduce the recall rate in such communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle Kiwifruit Non-Sugar Components Reduce Glycaemic Response to Co-Ingested Cereal in Humans
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1195; doi:10.3390/nu9111195
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Kiwifruit (KF) effects on the human glycaemic response to co-ingested wheat cereal were determined. Participants (n = 20) consumed four meals in random order, all being made to 40 g of the same available carbohydrate, by adding kiwifruit sugars (KF sug; glucose, fructose,
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Kiwifruit (KF) effects on the human glycaemic response to co-ingested wheat cereal were determined. Participants (n = 20) consumed four meals in random order, all being made to 40 g of the same available carbohydrate, by adding kiwifruit sugars (KF sug; glucose, fructose, sucrose 2:2:1) to meals not containing KF. The meals were flaked wheat biscuit (WB)+KFsug, WB+KF, WB+guar gum+KFsug, WB+guar gum+KF, that was ingested after fasting overnight. Blood glucose was monitored 3 h and hunger measured at 180 min post-meal using a visual analogue scale. KF and guar reduced postprandial blood glucose response amplitude, and prevented subsequent hypoglycaemia that occurred with WB+KFsug. The area between the blood glucose response curve and baseline from 0 to 180 min was not significantly different between meals, 0–120 min areas were significantly reduced by KF and/or guar. Area from 120 to 180 min was positive for KF, guar, and KF+guar, while the area for the WB meal was negative. Hunger at 180 min was significantly reduced by KF and/or guar when compared with WB. We conclude that KF components other than available carbohydrate may improve the glycaemic response profile to co-ingested cereal food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Caffeine at a Moderate Dose Did Not Affect the Skeletal System of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1196; doi:10.3390/nu9111196
Received: 21 July 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Diabetes may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Coffee drinking, apart from its health benefits, is taken into consideration as an osteoporosis risk factor. Data from human and animal studies on coffee and caffeine bone effects are inconsistent. The aim of the study
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Diabetes may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Coffee drinking, apart from its health benefits, is taken into consideration as an osteoporosis risk factor. Data from human and animal studies on coffee and caffeine bone effects are inconsistent. The aim of the study was to investigate effects of caffeine at a moderate dose on the skeletal system of rats in two models of experimental diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Effects of caffeine administered orally (20 mg/kg aily for four weeks) were investigated in three-month-old female Wistar rats, which, two weeks before the start of caffeine administration, received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alone or streptozotocin after nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Bone turnover markers, mass, mineral density, histomorphometric parameters, and mechanical properties were examined. Streptozotocin induced diabetes, with profound changes in the skeletal system due to increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. Although streptozotocin administered after nicotinamide induced slight increases in glucose levels at the beginning of the experiment only, slight, but significant unfavorable changes in the skeletal system were demonstrated. Administration of caffeine did not affect the investigated skeletal parameters of rats with streptozotocin-induced disorders. In conclusion, caffeine at a moderate dose did not exert a damaging effect on the skeletal system of diabetic rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prospective Associations of Dietary and Nutrient Patterns with Fracture Risk: A 20-Year Follow-Up Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1198; doi:10.3390/nu9111198
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
Studies on long-term exposure to foods/nutrients and its associations with fracture risk are scarce. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we determined the prospective association of dietary and nutrient patterns with fractures. Data from 15,572 adults aged ≥18 years
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Studies on long-term exposure to foods/nutrients and its associations with fracture risk are scarce. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), we determined the prospective association of dietary and nutrient patterns with fractures. Data from 15,572 adults aged ≥18 years were analyzed. Fracture occurrence was self-reported and dietary intake data were collected using a 24-h recall method for three consecutive days, for each individual across nine waves (1989–2011). We used cumulative and overall mean, recent and baseline dietary and nutrient exposures. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to determine the associations. Two dietary (traditional and modern) and two nutrient (plant- and animal-sourced) patterns were identified. After adjusting for potential confounders, study participants in the third tertiles (highest intake) of the modern dietary and animal-sourced nutrient patterns’ cumulative scores had a 34% (HR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.06–1.71) and 37% (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.08–1.72) increase in fracture risks compared to those in the first tertiles, respectively. While the overall mean factor scores of dietary and nutrient patterns had a similar (or stronger) pattern of association as the cumulative scores, no association between recent and baseline scores and fracture was found. Greater adherence to a modern dietary and/or an animal-sourced nutrient pattern is associated with a higher risk of total fractures. This suggests that a modern animal based diet is related to bone fragility. A repeated three-day 24-h recall dietary assessment provides a stronger association with fracture compared to a recent or baseline exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Anserine/Carnosine Supplementation Suppresses the Expression of the Inflammatory Chemokine CCL24 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Elderly People
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1199; doi:10.3390/nu9111199
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
Our goal was to determine whether anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) suppresses chemokine levels in elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were assigned to the ACS or placebo group (1:1). Sixty healthy elderly volunteers (active, n = 30; placebo, n = 30)
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Our goal was to determine whether anserine/carnosine supplementation (ACS) suppresses chemokine levels in elderly people. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial, volunteers were assigned to the ACS or placebo group (1:1). Sixty healthy elderly volunteers (active, n = 30; placebo, n = 30) completed the study. The ACS group was administered 1.0 g of anserine/carnosine (3:1) for 3 months. A microarray analysis and subsequent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) showed decreased expression of CCL24, an inflammatory chemokine (p < 0.05). Verbal memory, assessed using the Wechsler memory scale–logical memory, was preserved in the ACS group. An age-restricted sub-analysis showed significant verbal memory preservation by ACS in participants who were in their 60s (active, n = 12; placebo, n = 9; p = 0.048) and 70s (active, n = 7; placebo, n = 11; p = 0.017). The suppression of CCL24 expression was greatest in people who were in their 70s (p < 0.01). There was a significant correlation between the preservation of verbal memory and suppression of CCL24 expression in the group that was in the 70s (Poisson correlation, r = 0.46, p < 0.05). These results suggest that ACS may preserve verbal episodic memory, probably owing to CCL24 suppression in the blood, especially in elderly participants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Codonopsis lanceolata Water Extract Increases Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Rats with Experimentally-Induced Type 2 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1200; doi:10.3390/nu9111200
Received: 9 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
We examined the mechanisms and efficacy of Codonopsis lanceolata water extract (CLW) for treating type 2 diabetic (T2DM) symptoms. Partial pancreatectomized (Px) rats, a non-obese T2DM model, were provided high fat diets containing cellulose (control), 0.3% (CLW-L) or 1% CLW (CLW-H) for eight
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We examined the mechanisms and efficacy of Codonopsis lanceolata water extract (CLW) for treating type 2 diabetic (T2DM) symptoms. Partial pancreatectomized (Px) rats, a non-obese T2DM model, were provided high fat diets containing cellulose (control), 0.3% (CLW-L) or 1% CLW (CLW-H) for eight weeks. The positive control group was provided with rosiglitazone (20 mg/kg bw/day). The control group had lower epididymal fat masses than the CLW and the positive control groups, possibly due to urinary glucose loss, although CPT-1 and SIRT-1 expression was higher in the CLW group. CLW-H significantly reduced serum glucose levels and urinary glucose loss compared to the untreated control. The improvement of glucose utilization was associated with a higher fat mass in the CLW-H and positive control groups. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was higher in the untreated control than other groups and CLW tightly regulated insulin secretion as much as the positive control, and it was much tighter than the untreated control. Glucose infusion rates were higher during the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp in the CLW and positive controls than the untreated control, and liver glucose outputs were lower during basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions in the CLW and positive control groups than the untreated control group. The increased hepatic insulin sensitivity was associated with enhanced insulin signaling in CLW (pAkt➔pGSK-1β). In conclusion, CLW consumption effectively alleviated diabetic symptoms by improving insulin sensitivity, potentiating hepatic insulin signaling and tightly regulating the insulin secretion capacity in non-obese T2DM rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Direct Feeding at the Breast Is Associated with Breast Milk Feeding Duration among Preterm Infants
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1202; doi:10.3390/nu9111202
Received: 17 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 29 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: In spite of high rates of initiating breast milk feeding (BMF) among preterm infants, a significant rate of discontinuation occurs shortly after discharge. Aim: To investigate the effect of mode (direct feeding at the breast vs. expressing) and exclusivity (breast milk combined
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Background: In spite of high rates of initiating breast milk feeding (BMF) among preterm infants, a significant rate of discontinuation occurs shortly after discharge. Aim: To investigate the effect of mode (direct feeding at the breast vs. expressing) and exclusivity (breast milk combined with formula vs. breast milk only) as well as maternal perceptions on the duration of BMF among preterm infants. Methods: The study included mothers whose infants were born before 32 weeks gestation, between January 2012 and August 2015 at Sheba Medical Center (SMC). Perinatal data were collected retrospectively from infants’ computerized charts. Mothers were approached >12 months postpartum and were asked to complete a questionnaire. Those who agreed to participate were asked (during their visit to the follow-up clinic or by phone or mail) to complete a questionnaire regarding mode and duration of BMF as well as reasons for its discontinuation. Mothers were also asked about their pre-partum intentions to feed directly at the breast. Results: Out of 162 eligible mothers, 131 (80.8%) initiated BMF during their intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization. Of these, 66 (50.3%) discontinued BMF earlier than six months postpartum. BMF ≥ 6 months was significantly associated with direct feeding at the breast, duration of exclusive BMF, and singleton birth. Regression analysis revealed that direct feeding at the breast (any or only) and duration of BMF exclusivity were the only significant variables associated with BMF duration (Odds ratio (OR) 5.5 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00–15.37; OR 1.5 and 95% CI 1.25–1.88, respectively). Milk supply (inadequate or nonexistent) was the most commonly reported cause for BMF discontinuation <6 months. Direct feeding at the breast was significantly associated with BMF duration and was more common among singletons. Conclusions: Direct feeding at the breast and duration of exclusive BMF are associated with duration of BMF among infants born <32 weeks of gestational age (GA). These findings suggest that targeting these two factors may play a key role in prolonging BMF duration among preterm infants. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Salivary Insulin Following Low versus High Carbohydrate Meals in Humans
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1204; doi:10.3390/nu9111204
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 29 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Developing non-invasive alternatives to monitor insulin levels in humans holds potential practical value for identifying individuals with, or at risk of developing, insulin resistance. The aims of this study were: (1) to determine if saliva insulin can be used to delineate between low
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Developing non-invasive alternatives to monitor insulin levels in humans holds potential practical value for identifying individuals with, or at risk of developing, insulin resistance. The aims of this study were: (1) to determine if saliva insulin can be used to delineate between low and high postprandial insulin levels following the ingestion of mixed breakfast meals; and (2) to determine if expected differences in postprandial hyperinsulinemia between young lean and young overweight/obese participants could be detected in saliva. Sixteen individuals (n = 8 classified as normal weight (NW); BMI 20.0–24.9 kg/m2, and n = 8 classified as overweight/obese (OO); BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m2) completed two isocaloric mixed-meal tolerance tests following an overnight fast, consisting of a low-carbohydrate (LC) breakfast or a high-carbohydrate (HC) breakfast. Blood and saliva samples were collected at regular intervals for two hours postprandially. In both groups, plasma and saliva insulin total area under the curve (AUC) and incremental AUC (iAUC) were significantly higher after the HC as compared to the LC meal (all p ≤ 0.005). Insulin AUC and iAUC in both plasma and saliva were higher in OO than in NW after the HC meal (all p ≤ 0.02) but only plasma and saliva total AUC were higher in OO after the LC meal (both p ≤ 0.01). Plasma insulin AUC was significantly correlated with salivary insulin AUC in LC (r = 0.821; p < 0.001) and HC (r = 0.882; p < 0.001). These findings indicate that saliva could potentially be used to delineate between low and high insulin levels following mixed breakfast meals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Intake after Weight Loss and the Risk of Weight Regain: Macronutrient Composition and Inflammatory Properties of the Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1205; doi:10.3390/nu9111205
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty
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Weight regain after successful weight loss is a big problem in obesity management. This study aimed to investigate whether weight regain after a weight loss period is correlated with the macronutrient composition and/or the inflammatory index of the diet during that period. Sixty one overweight and obese adults participated in this experimental study. Subjects lost approximately 10% of their initial weight by means of very low-calorie diet for five weeks, or a low calorie diet for 12 weeks. After that, subjects in both groups followed a strict weight maintenance diet based on individual needs for four weeks, which was followed by a nine-month weight maintenance period without dietary counseling. Anthropometrics and dietary intake data were recorded before weight loss (baseline) and during the weight maintenance period. On average, participants regained approximately half of their lost weight. We found no evidence that macronutrient composition during the weight maintenance period was associated with weight regain. The dietary inflammatory index (r = 0.304, p = 0.032) was positively correlated with weight regain and remained significant after correction for physical activity (r = 0.287, p = 0.045). Our data suggest that the inflammatory properties of diet play a role in weight regain after weight loss in overweight and obese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approaches to Prevent Weight Regain)
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Open AccessArticle Association between Duration of Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy and Risk of Postpartum Depression
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1206; doi:10.3390/nu9111206
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Postpartum depression (PPD), as a common complication of childbearing, could have adverse consequences on mothers, children, and families. This cohort study aimed to assess the association between duration of folic acid (FA) supplementation during pregnancy and the onset of PPD in Chinese women.
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Postpartum depression (PPD), as a common complication of childbearing, could have adverse consequences on mothers, children, and families. This cohort study aimed to assess the association between duration of folic acid (FA) supplementation during pregnancy and the onset of PPD in Chinese women. A total of 1592 participants were recruited, and data collected between July 2015 and March 2017 in Tianjin, China. Participants’ baseline data were collected regarding socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, obstetric history, and FA supplementation during pregnancy. The Chinese version of the self-rating depression scale was used to assess depressive symptoms at 6–12 weeks postpartum, and the prevalence of PPD in participants was 29.4%. Pregnant women who took FA supplements for >6 months had a lower prevalence of PPD, compared to those who took FA for ≤6 months. After using the 1:1 ratio propensity score matching, 601 FA-users ≤ 6 months and 601 FA-users > 6 months were included in the further analyses; this also yielded similar results (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that FA intake for >6 months was an independent determinant of PPD (odds ratio = 0.76; 95% confidence interval: 0.59–0.98; P < 0.05). Thus, prolonged FA supplementation during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of PPD in Chinese women. Full article
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Open AccessArticle What Should Be Taught in Secondary Schools’ Nutrition and Food Systems Education? Views from Prominent Food-Related Professionals in Australia
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1207; doi:10.3390/nu9111207
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Education can help young people to attain the knowledge and the skills that they need to make proper food choices and develop lifelong healthy eating patterns. This study explored the perspectives of prominent food-related professionals in Australia regarding essential nutrition and food systems
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Education can help young people to attain the knowledge and the skills that they need to make proper food choices and develop lifelong healthy eating patterns. This study explored the perspectives of prominent food-related professionals in Australia regarding essential nutrition and food systems (N&FS) education programs for adolescents during formal education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 prominent food-related professionals in Australia. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically. Four essential areas for N&FS education programs were identified. (1) Key nutrition messages to a healthy lifestyle; (2) Skill development programs to enhance health and wellbeing; (3) Ethical food-related lessons to support environmental sustainability, farm animal welfare, local producers, and food security; and, (4) Introductory lessons about foods from farm to plate to facilitate more informed food choices. Findings of this study may provide new insights for curriculum developers in Australia for further assessment of the current gaps in N&FS components of secondary school curriculum. Integration of these four areas into secondary school curricula has the potential to enhance adolescents’ knowledge of important scientific and ethical issues in a range of N&FS fields, and enable them to develop fundamental food-related life skills that are supportive of health and wellbeing. Full article
Open AccessArticle Symptom Severity Following Rifaximin and the Probiotic VSL#3 in Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (Due to Inflammatory Prostatitis) Plus Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1208; doi:10.3390/nu9111208
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 30 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
This study investigated the effects of long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 on uro-genital and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) plus diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) compared with patients with D-IBS alone. Eighty-five patients with
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This study investigated the effects of long-term treatment with rifaximin and the probiotic VSL#3 on uro-genital and gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) plus diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) compared with patients with D-IBS alone. Eighty-five patients with CP/CPPS (45 with subtype IIIa and 40 with IIIb) plus D-IBS according to the Rome III criteria and an aged-matched control-group of patients with D-IBS alone (n = 75) received rifaximin and VSL#3. The primary endpoints were the response rates of IBS and CP/CPPS symptoms, assessed respectively through Irritable Bowel Syndrome Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) and The National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and performed at the start of therapy (V0) and three months after (V3). In IIIa prostatitis patients, the total NIH-CPSI scores significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from a baseline mean value of 21.2 to 14.5 at V3 , as did all subscales, and in the IIIb the total NIH-CPSI score also significantly decreased (from 17.4 to 15.1). Patients with IBS alone showed no significant differences in NIH-CPSI score. At V3, significantly greater improvement in the IBS-SSS and responder rate were found in IIIa patients. Our results were explained through a better individual response at V3 in IIIa prostatitis of urinary and gastrointestinal symptoms, while mean leukocyte counts on expressed prostate secretion (EPS) after prostate massage significantly lowered only in IIIa cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Orally Administered Collagen Peptides from Bovine Bone on Skin Aging in Chronologically Aged Mice
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1209; doi:10.3390/nu9111209
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
Collagen peptides (CPs) have demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on skin photoaging. However, little has been done to evaluate their effects on chronologically aged skin. Here, the effects of CPs from bovine bone on skin aging were investigated in chronologically aged mice. 13-month-old
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Collagen peptides (CPs) have demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on skin photoaging. However, little has been done to evaluate their effects on chronologically aged skin. Here, the effects of CPs from bovine bone on skin aging were investigated in chronologically aged mice. 13-month-old female Kunming mice were administered with CPs from bovine bone (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight/day) or proline (400 mg/kg body weight/day) for 8 weeks. Mice body weight, spleen index (SI) and thymus index (TI), degree of skin laxity (DSL), skin components, skin histology and antioxidant indicators were analyzed. Ingestion of CPs or proline had no effect on mice skin moisture and hyaluronic acid content, but it significantly improved the skin laxity, repaired collagen fibers, increased collagen content and normalized the ratio of type I to type III collagen in chronologically aged skin. CPs prepared by Alcalase performed better than CPs prepared by collagenase. Furthermore, CPs intake also significantly improved the antioxidative enzyme activities in skin. These results indicate that oral administration of CPs from bovine bone or proline can improve the laxity of chronologically aged skin by changing skin collagen quantitatively and qualitatively, and highlight their potential application as functional foods to combat skin aging in chronologically aged process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and the Skin: Roles in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Leptin and Physical Activity in Adult Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: Failure to Demonstrate a Simple Linear Association
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1210; doi:10.3390/nu9111210
Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
High physical activity (PA) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) is hypothesized to be, at least in part, a consequence of hypoleptinemia. However, most studies on the association of leptin and PA in AN were performed in adolescents or young adults, and PA
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High physical activity (PA) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) is hypothesized to be, at least in part, a consequence of hypoleptinemia. However, most studies on the association of leptin and PA in AN were performed in adolescents or young adults, and PA was generally measured with subjective tools. We aimed to explore the association of leptin and PA in adults with AN using an objective technique to quantify PA. Using a cross-sectional, observational design, we analyzed body fat (bioelectrical impedance), PA (accelerometry, SenseWear™ armband) and plasma leptin (ELISA) in 61 women with AN (median age: 25 years, range: 18–52 years; median BMI: 14.8 ± 2.0 kg/m2) at the start of hospitalization. Results indicated a mean step count per day of 12,841 ± 6408 (range: 3956–37,750). Leptin was closely associated with BMI and body fat (ρ = 0.508 and ρ = 0.669, p < 0.001), but not with steps (ρ = 0.015, p = 0.908). Moreover, no significant association was observed between BMI and steps (ρ = 0.189, p = 0.146). In conclusion, there was no simple, linear association of leptin and PA, highlighting the need for more complex and non-linear models to analyze the association of leptin and PA in adults with AN in future studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Dietary Intake in Latina Pregnant Adolescents and Its Association with Level of Depression, Stress, and Social Support
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1212; doi:10.3390/nu9111212
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
Adolescent pregnant women are at greater risk for nutritional deficits, stress, and depression than their adult counterparts, and these risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes are likely interrelated. This study evaluated the prevalence of nutritional deficits in pregnant teenagers and assessed the associations
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Adolescent pregnant women are at greater risk for nutritional deficits, stress, and depression than their adult counterparts, and these risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes are likely interrelated. This study evaluated the prevalence of nutritional deficits in pregnant teenagers and assessed the associations among micronutrient dietary intake, stress, and depression. One hundred and eight pregnant Latina adolescents completed an Automated Self-Administered 24-hour dietary recall (ASA24) in the 2nd trimester. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. Social support satisfaction was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire. More than 50% of pregnant teenagers had an inadequate intake (excluding dietary supplement) of folate, vitamin A, vitamin E, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous. Additionally, >20% of participants had an inadequate intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, copper, and selenium. Prenatal supplement inclusion improved dietary intake for most micronutrients except for calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous, (>50% below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)) and for copper and selenium (>20% below the EAR). Higher depressive symptoms were associated with higher energy, carbohydrates, and fats, and lower magnesium intake. Higher social support satisfaction was positively associated with dietary intake of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron, and zinc. The findings suggest that mood and dietary factors are associated and should be considered together for health interventions during adolescent pregnancy for the young woman and her future child. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Marine Oils, Digested with Human Fluids, on Cellular Viability and Stress Protein Expression in Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cells
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1213; doi:10.3390/nu9111213
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE)). We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver,
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In vitro digestion of marine oils has been reported to promote lipid oxidation, including the formation of reactive aldehydes (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2-hexenal (HHE)). We aimed to investigate if human in vitro digestion of supplemental levels of oils from algae, cod liver, and krill, in addition to pure MDA and HHE, affect intestinal Caco-2 cell survival and oxidative stress. Cell viability was not significantly affected by the digests of marine oils or by pure MDA and HHE (0–90 μM). Cellular levels of HSP-70, a chaperone involved in the prevention of stress-induced protein unfolding was significantly decreased (14%, 28%, and 14% of control for algae, cod and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). The oxidoreductase thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) involved in reducing oxidative stress was also lower after incubation with the digested oils (26%, 53%, and 22% of control for algae, cod, and krill oil, respectively; p ≤ 0.001). The aldehydes MDA and HHE did not affect HSP-70 or Trx-1 at low levels (8.3 and 1.4 μM, respectively), whilst a mixture of MDA and HHE lowered Trx-1 at high levels (45 μM), indicating less exposure to oxidative stress. We conclude that human digests of the investigated marine oils and their content of MDA and HHE did not cause a stress response in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibitory Effect of Arachis hypogaea (Peanut) and Its Phenolics against Methylglyoxal-Derived Advanced Glycation End Product Toxicity
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1214; doi:10.3390/nu9111214
Received: 12 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound that causes endothelial dysfunction and plays important roles in the development of diabetic complications. Peanuts are rich in energy, minerals, and antioxidants. Here, we report the potential beneficial effects of peanuts, and particularly the phenolic
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Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound that causes endothelial dysfunction and plays important roles in the development of diabetic complications. Peanuts are rich in energy, minerals, and antioxidants. Here, we report the potential beneficial effects of peanuts, and particularly the phenolic contents, against MGO-mediated cytotoxicity. Firstly, we optimized the extraction conditions for maximum yield of phenolics from peanuts by examining different processing methods and extraction solvents. To estimate the phenolic contents of peanut extracts, a simultaneous analysis method was developed and validated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We found that roasted peanuts and their 80% methanol extracts showed the highest amount of total phenolics. Secondly, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of phenolics and peanut extracts against MGO-mediated cytotoxicity. Phenolics and peanut extracts were observed to inhibit advanced glycation end product (AGE) formation as well as to break preformed AGEs. Furthermore, pretreatment with peanut extracts significantly inhibited MGO-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Peanut extracts prevented MGO-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 expression and decreasing Bax expression, and MGO-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In conclusion, the constituents of peanuts may prevent endothelial dysfunction and diabetic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1215; doi:10.3390/nu9111215
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 4 November 2017
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Abstract
Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h), would result in lower quantities
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Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h), would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26). Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03), but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Iron Deficiency Anemia, Not Iron Deficiency, Is Associated with Reduced Attention in Healthy Young Women
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1216; doi:10.3390/nu9111216
Received: 7 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 5 November 2017
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Abstract
Women of reproductive age are at increased risk for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), with both implicated in decreased cognitive function (CF). Obesity may complicate this association via inflammatory-mediated ferritin elevation. This cross-sectional study examined the association between hematological iron
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Women of reproductive age are at increased risk for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA), with both implicated in decreased cognitive function (CF). Obesity may complicate this association via inflammatory-mediated ferritin elevation. This cross-sectional study examined the association between hematological iron status (iron replete (IR), ID or IDA) and CF in healthy, young (18–35 years) women of normal-weight (NW: BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) or obese-weight (OB: BMI >30 kg/m2). Participants completed a validated, computer-based cognition assessment evaluating impulsivity, attention, information processing, memory and executive function; CF reported as z-scores (mean ± SD). Iron status and CF were compared between groups via ANOVA, with adjustment for potential confounders (BMI, physical activity, C-reactive protein) via ANCOVA. A total of 157 NW and 142 OB women (25.8 ± 5.1 years) participated. Prevalence of ID and IDA were 14% and 6% respectively, with no significant difference between NW and OB groups. Women with IDA scored significantly lower on attention (although within normal range; ±1 z-score), compared to ID (IDA: −0.75 ± 1.89; ID: 0.53 ± 1.37; p = 0.004) but not IR (0.03 ± 1.33, p = 0.21) groups; there were no significant differences between ID and IR groups (p = 0.34). Adjustment for confounders did not significantly alter these results. In conclusion, women with IDA showed significantly reduced attention compared to women with ID. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Pediatric Chronic Intestinal Failure in Italy: Report from the 2016 Survey on Behalf of Italian Society for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (SIGENP)
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1217; doi:10.3390/nu9111217
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 25 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 5 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Intestinal failure (IF) is the reduction in functioning gut mass below the minimal level necessary for adequate digestion and absorption of nutrients and fluids for weight maintenance in adults or for growth in children. There is a paucity of epidemiologic data on
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Background: Intestinal failure (IF) is the reduction in functioning gut mass below the minimal level necessary for adequate digestion and absorption of nutrients and fluids for weight maintenance in adults or for growth in children. There is a paucity of epidemiologic data on pediatric IF. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, incidence, regional distribution and underlying diagnosis of pediatric chronic IF (CIF) requiring home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in Italy. Methods: Local investigators were selected in 19 Italian centers either of reference for pediatric HPN or having pediatric gastroenterologists or surgeons on staff and already collaborating with the Italian Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition with regard to IF. Data requested in this survey for children at home on Parenteral Nutrition (PN) on 1 December 2016 included patient initials, year of birth, gender, family’s place of residence and underlying diagnosis determining IF. Results: We recorded 145 CIF patients on HPN aged ≤19 years. The overall prevalence was 14.12/million inhabitants (95% CI: 9.20–18.93); the overall incidence was 1.41/million inhabitant years (95% CI: 0.53–2.20). Conclusion: Our survey provides new epidemiological data on pediatric CIF in Italy; these data may be quantitatively useful in developing IF care strategy plans in all developed countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Pediatric Gastroenterology: Selected Papers from SIGENP)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Pattern during 1991–2011 and Its Association with Cardio Metabolic Risks in Chinese Adults: The China Health and Nutrition Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1218; doi:10.3390/nu9111218
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study
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Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and other cardio metabolic risks has become a public health concern in China, a country undergoing nutrition transition. We investigated the dietary pattern during 1991–2011 and its association with these risks in a longitudinal study among adults; Adults in The China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Three-day food consumption was collected by 24 h recall method. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was collected in 2009. Dietary pattern was generated using principal components analysis. The associations between dietary pattern and cardio metabolic risk were assessed with generalized linear regression adjusted for age, sex, and social economic status (SES). “Traditional” pattern loaded with rice, meat, and vegetables, and “Modern” pattern had high loadings of fast food, milk, and deep-fried food. “Traditional” pattern was inversely associated with cardio metabolic risks, with linear slopes ranging from −0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.18, −0.12) for hypertension to −0.67 (95% CI: −0.73, −0.60) for impaired glucose control. “Modern” pattern was associated positively with those factors, with slopes ranging 0.10 (95% CI: 0.04, 0.17) for high cholesterol to 0.42 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.49) for impaired glucose control. Dietary patterns were associated with cardio metabolic risk in Chinese adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Associations between Nut Consumption and Health Vary between Omnivores, Vegetarians, and Vegans
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1219; doi:10.3390/nu9111219
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease
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Regular nut consumption is associated with reduced risk factors for chronic disease; however, most population-based studies lack consideration of effect modification by dietary pattern. The UK Women’s Cohort Study (UKWCS) provides an ideal opportunity to examine relationships between nut consumption and chronic disease risk factors in a large sample with diverse dietary patterns. Nut and nutrient intake from 34,831 women was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire among self-identified omnivores, vegetarians and vegans. In this cross-sectional analysis, higher nut consumption was associated with lower body weight (difference between highest and lowest consumption categories from adjusted model: 6.1 kg; 95% CI: 4.7, 7.6) body mass index (BMI, 2.4 units difference; 95% CI: 1.9, 2.9), and waist circumference (2.6 cm difference; 95% CI: 1.4, 3.8) (all p for linear trend < 0.001). Higher nut consumption was also associated with reduced prevalence of high cholesterol and high blood pressure; having a history of heart attack, diabetes and gallstones; and markers of diet quality (all adjusted p for linear trend ≤ 0.011). Higher nut consumption appeared overall to be associated with greater benefits amongst omnivores compared to vegetarians and vegans. Findings support existing literature around beneficial effects of nut consumption and suggest that benefits may be larger among omnivores. Nut promotion strategies may have the highest population impact by specifically targeting this group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Exacerbated in High-Fat Diet-Fed Gnotobiotic Mice by Colonization with the Gut Microbiota from Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1220; doi:10.3390/nu9111220
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 2 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious liver disorder associated with the accumulation of fat and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the gut microbiota composition that might influence the progression of NAFLD. Germ-free mice were inoculated with feces
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a serious liver disorder associated with the accumulation of fat and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine the gut microbiota composition that might influence the progression of NAFLD. Germ-free mice were inoculated with feces from patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) or from healthy persons (HL) and then fed a standard diet (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD). We found that the epididymal fat weight, hepatic steatosis, multifocal necrosis, and inflammatory cell infiltration significantly increased in the NASH-HFD group. These findings were consistent with markedly elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, endotoxin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (Mcp1), and hepatic triglycerides. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2), Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf-α), Mcp1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Ppar-γ) significantly increased. Only abundant lipid accumulation and a few inflammatory reactions were observed in group HL-HFD. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes shifted in the HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae was the highest in group NASH-HFD. Nevertheless, obesity-related Lactobacillaceae were significantly upregulated in HL-HFD mice. Our results revealed that the gut microbiota from NASH Patients aggravated hepatic steatosis and inflammation. These findings might partially explain the NAFLD progress distinctly was related to different compositions of gut microbiota. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Neonatal Blood Iron Content Is Associated with the Risk of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1221; doi:10.3390/nu9111221
Received: 3 September 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 6 November 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Iron requirement increases during pregnancy and iron supplementation is therefore recommended in many countries. However, excessive iron intake may lead to destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we aim to test if higher neonatal iron content in blood is associated with the
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(1) Background: Iron requirement increases during pregnancy and iron supplementation is therefore recommended in many countries. However, excessive iron intake may lead to destruction of pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we aim to test if higher neonatal iron content in blood is associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) in childhood; (2) Methods: A case-control study was conducted, including 199 children diagnosed with T1D before the age of 16 years from 1991 to 2005 and 199 controls matched on date of birth. Information on confounders was available in 181 cases and 154 controls. Iron was measured on a neonatal single dried blood spot sample and was analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate if iron content in whole blood was associated with the risk of T1D; (3) Results: A doubling of iron content increased the odds of developing T1D more than two-fold (odds ratio (95% CI), 2.55 (1.04; 6.24)). Iron content increased with maternal age (p = 0.04) and girls had higher content than boys (p = 0.01); (4) Conclusions: Higher neonatal iron content associates to an increased risk of developing T1D before the age of 16 years. Iron supplementation during early childhood needs further investigation, including the causes of high iron in neonates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1226; doi:10.3390/nu9111226
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between
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Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Low Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index Is Associated with Progression to Dialysis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1228; doi:10.3390/nu9111228
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Evaluating nutritional status is crucial to detecting malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) has been associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in the dialysis population. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the
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Evaluating nutritional status is crucial to detecting malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) has been associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in the dialysis population. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the GNRI is associated with progression to dialysis in patients with moderate to advanced CKD. We enrolled 496 patients with stage 3–5 CKD who had received echocardiographic examinations, and categorized them according to baseline GNRI values calculated using the serum albumin level and body weight. The renal end-point was defined as the commencement of dialysis. During follow-up (mean, 25.2 ± 12.5 months; range, 3.3–50.1 months), 106 (21.4%) of the patients progressed to dialysis. The GNRI was positively correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r = 0.111, p = 0.014), and negatively correlated with the left ventricular mass index (r = −0.116, p = 0.001), left ventricular hypertrophy (r = −0.095, p = 0.035), and LVEF < 50% (r = −0.138, p = 0.002). In multivariable Cox analysis, a low GNRI, female sex, high systolic blood pressure, high fasting glucose, and low estimated glomerular filtration rate were independently associated with progression to dialysis. A low GNRI was independently associated with progression to dialysis in our study cohort. The GNRI may be useful in predicting the risk of adverse renal outcomes in patients with CKD stages 3–5. Additional studies are needed to explore whether an improvement in GNRI delays CKD progression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Concentrations of Carotenoids and Tocopherols in Breast Milk from Urban Chinese Mothers and Their Associations with Maternal Characteristics: A Cross-Sectional Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1229; doi:10.3390/nu9111229
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Milk composition remains the best estimate of infant requirements. The aims of this study were to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese mothers, and to explore their associations with lactation stage, region, socio-economic and obstetric characteristics, and dietary intake.
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Milk composition remains the best estimate of infant requirements. The aims of this study were to quantify carotenoids and tocopherols in human milk from healthy Chinese mothers, and to explore their associations with lactation stage, region, socio-economic and obstetric characteristics, and dietary intake. Human milk was obtained from 509 healthy mothers, and concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols were analyzed by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The mothers’ socio-economic and obstetric characteristics and dietary intake through a single 24-h dietary recall were evaluated. The median concentrations (μg/100 mL) of each component of 0–4 days, 5–11 days, 12–30 days, 31–60 days, 61–120 days, and 121–240 days postpartum were respectively as follows: β-carotene 8.0, 2.8, 2.1, 1.7, 1.9, 1.8; β-cryptoxanthin 6.2, 3.4, 2.4, 1.7, 1.8, 2.1; lutein 5.7, 7.0, 2.2, 2.9, 2.8, 3.7; lycopene 6.3, 2.5, 1.8, 1.4, 1.4, 1.5; zeaxanthin 1.0, 1.4, 0.8, 0.8, 1.0, 1.1; α-tocopherol 645, 382, 239, 206, 212, 211; γ-tocopherol 68, 63, 70, 73, 68, 88. The levels of those components varied significantly among different lactation stages and presented regional differences. Associations of carotenoid contents with maternal education, delivery mode, and present body mass index were found in multivariate analyses. These results suggested that lactation stage, region, and socio-economic and obstetric factors were associated with human milk concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols in healthy Chinese mothers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Slowly Digestible Carbohydrate for Balanced Energy: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1230; doi:10.3390/nu9111230
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
There is growing interest among consumers in foods for sustained energy management, and an increasing number of ingredients are emerging to address this demand. The SUSTRA™ 2434 slowly digestible carbohydrate is a blend of tapioca flour and corn starch, with the potential to
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There is growing interest among consumers in foods for sustained energy management, and an increasing number of ingredients are emerging to address this demand. The SUSTRA™ 2434 slowly digestible carbohydrate is a blend of tapioca flour and corn starch, with the potential to provide balanced energy after a meal. The aim of the study was to characterize this starch’s digestion profile in vitro (modified Englyst assay) and in vivo (intact and cecectomized rooster study), and to determine its effects on available energy, by measuring post-prandial glycemia in healthy adults (n = 14), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with two food forms: cold-pressed bar and pudding. The in vitro starch digestion yielded a high slowly digestible fraction (51%) compared to maltodextrin (9%). In the rooster digestibility model, the starch was highly digestible (94%). Consumption of slowly digestible starch (SDS), in an instant pudding or bar, yielded a significantly lower glycemic index compared to a control. At individual time points, the SDS bar and pudding yielded blood glucose levels with significantly lower values at 30–60 min and significantly higher values at 120–240 min, demonstrating a balanced energy release. This is the first study to comprehensively characterize the physiological responses to slowly digestible starch (tapioca and corn blend) in in vitro and in vivo studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Integrated Evaluation of the Potential Health Benefits of Einkorn-Based Breads
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1232; doi:10.3390/nu9111232
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
Nowadays the high nutritional value of whole grains is recognized, and there is an increasing interest in the ancient varieties for producing wholegrain food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Among ancient crops, einkorn could represent a valid alternative. In this work, einkorn flours
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Nowadays the high nutritional value of whole grains is recognized, and there is an increasing interest in the ancient varieties for producing wholegrain food products with enhanced nutritional characteristics. Among ancient crops, einkorn could represent a valid alternative. In this work, einkorn flours were analyzed for their content in carotenoids and in free and bound phenolic acids, and compared to wheat flours. The most promising flours were used to produce conventional and sourdough fermented breads. Breads were in vitro digested, and characterized before and after digestion. The four breads having the best characteristics were selected, and the product of their digestion was used to evaluate their anti-inflammatory effect using Caco-2 cells. Our results confirm the higher carotenoid levels in einkorn than in modern wheats, and the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation in maintaining these levels, despite the longer exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Moreover, in cultured cells einkorn bread evidenced an anti-inflammatory effect, although masked by the effect of digestive fluid. This study represents the first integrated evaluation of the potential health benefit of einkorn-based bakery products compared to wheat-based ones, and contributes to our knowledge of ancient grains. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels in Post-Myocardial Infarction Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: The Alpha Omega Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1233; doi:10.3390/nu9111233
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic
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Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid consumption has been inversely associated with FGF23 levels and with cardiovascular risk. We examined the effect of marine n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and plant-derived alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on plasma FGF23 levels in post-myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. In the randomized double-blind Alpha Omega Trial, 4837 patients with a history of myocardial infarction aged 60–80 years (81% men) were randomized to one of four trial margarines supplemented with a targeted additional intake of 400 mg/day EPA and DHA, 2 g/day ALA, EPA-DHA plus ALA, or placebo for 41 months. In a subcohort of 336 patients with an eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (creatinine-cystatin C-based CKD-EPI formula), plasma C-terminal FGF23 was measured by ELISA at baseline and end of follow-up. We used analysis of covariance to examine treatment effects on FGF23 levels adjusted for baseline FGF23. Patients consumed 19.8 g margarine/day on average, providing an additional amount of 236 mg/day EPA with 158 mg/day DHA, 1.99 g/day ALA or both, in the active intervention groups. Over 79% of patients were treated with antihypertensive and antithrombotic medication and statins. At baseline, plasma FGF23 was 150 (128 to 172) RU/mL (mean (95% CI)). After 41 months, overall FGF23 levels had increased significantly (p < 0.0001) to 212 (183 to 241) RU/mL. Relative to the placebo, the treatment effect of EPA-DHA was indifferent, with a mean change in FGF23 (95% CI) of −17 (−97, 62) RU/mL (p = 0.7). Results were similar for ALA (36 (−42, 115) RU/mL) and combined EPA-DHA and ALA (34 (−44, 113) RU/mL). Multivariable adjustment, pooled analyses, and subgroup analyses yielded similar non-significant results. Long-term supplementation with modest quantities of EPA-DHA or ALA does not reduce plasma FGF23 levels when added to cardiovascular medication in post-myocardial patients with chronic kidney disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
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Open AccessArticle Asthmatic Patients with Vitamin D Deficiency have Decreased Exacerbations after Vitamin Replacement
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1234; doi:10.3390/nu9111234
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Intervention studies with vitamin D in asthma are inconclusive for several reasons, such as inadequate dosing or duration of supplementation or uncontrolled baseline vitamin D status. Our aim was to evaluate the benefit of long term vitamin D add-on in asthmatic patients
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Background: Intervention studies with vitamin D in asthma are inconclusive for several reasons, such as inadequate dosing or duration of supplementation or uncontrolled baseline vitamin D status. Our aim was to evaluate the benefit of long term vitamin D add-on in asthmatic patients with actual vitamin D deficiency, that is a serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD ) below 20 ng/mL. Methods: Serum 25-OHD, asthma exacerbations, spirometry and inhaled corticosteroids (CS) dose were evaluated in a cohort of 119 asthmatic patients. Patients with deficiency were evaluated again after one year vitamin supplementation. Results: 25-OHD was low in 111 patients and was negatively related to exacerbations (p < 0.001), inhaled CS dose (p = 0.008) and asthma severity (p = 0.001). Deficiency was found in 90 patients, 55 of whom took the supplement regularly for one year, while 24 discontinued the study and 11 were not adherent. Patients with vitamin D deficiency after 12 months supplementation showed significant decrease of exacerbations (from 2.6 ± 1.2 to 1.6 ± 1.1, p < 0.001), circulating eosinophils (from 395 ± 330 to 272 ± 212 106/L, p < 0.001), and need of oral CS courses (from 35 to 20, p = 0.007) and improvement of airway obstruction. Conclusions: Asthma exacerbations are favored by vitamin D deficiency and decrease after long-term vitamin D replacement. Patients who are vitamin D deficient benefit from vitamin D supplementation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Vitamin D Status and the Relationship with Neonatal Anthropometric and Childhood Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Results from the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1235; doi:10.3390/nu9111235
Received: 9 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 11 November 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known
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Vitamin D has an important role in early life; however, the optimal vitamin D status during pregnancy is currently unclear. There have been recent calls for pregnant women to maintain circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations >100 nmol/L for health, yet little is known about the long-term potential benefits or safety of achieving such high maternal 25(OH)D concentrations for infant or child health outcomes. We examined maternal vitamin D status and its associations with infant anthropometric and later childhood neurocognitive outcomes in a mother-child cohort in a sun-rich country near the equator (4.6° S). This study was conducted in pregnant mothers originally recruited to the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study. Blood samples (n = 202) taken at delivery were analysed for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations. Multiple linear regression models assessed associations between maternal 25(OH)D and birth weight, infant head circumference, and neurocognitive outcomes in the children at age 5 years. Mothers were, on average, 27 years of age, and the children’s average gestational age was 39 weeks. None of the women reported any intake of vitamin D supplements. Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations had a mean of 101 (range 34–218 nmol/L) and none were deficient (<30 nmol/L). Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations were not associated with child anthropometric or neurodevelopmental outcomes. These findings appear to indicate that a higher vitamin D status is not a limiting factor for neonatal growth or neurocognitive development in the first 5 years of life. Larger studies with greater variability in vitamin D status are needed to further explore optimal cut-offs or non-linear associations (including for maternal health) that might exist among populations with sub-optimal exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
Open AccessArticle Dietary Pea Fiber Supplementation Improves Glycemia and Induces Changes in the Composition of Gut Microbiota, Serum Short Chain Fatty Acid Profile and Expression of Mucins in Glucose Intolerant Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1236; doi:10.3390/nu9111236
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of dried peas and their components on glucose tolerance; however, the role of gut microbiota as a potential mediator is not fully examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with raw and
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Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of dried peas and their components on glucose tolerance; however, the role of gut microbiota as a potential mediator is not fully examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with raw and cooked pea seed coats (PSC) on glucose tolerance, microbial composition of the gut, select markers of intestinal barrier function, and short chain fatty acid profile in glucose intolerant rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks to induce glucose intolerance, followed by four weeks of feeding PSC-supplemented diets. Cooked PSC improved glucose tolerance by approximately 30% (p < 0.05), and raw and cooked PSC diets reduced insulin response by 53% and 56% respectively (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01), compared to HFD (containing cellulose as the source of dietary fiber). 16S rRNA gene sequencing on fecal samples showed a significant shift in the overall microbial composition of PSC groups when compared to HFD and low fat diet (LFD) controls. At the family level, PSC increased the abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Prevotellaceae (p < 0.001), and decreased Porphyromonadaceae (p < 0.01) compared with HFD. This was accompanied by increased mRNA expression of mucin genes Muc1, Muc2, and Muc4 in ileal epithelium (p < 0.05). Serum levels of acetate and propionate increased with raw PSC diet (p < 0.01). These results indicate that supplementation of HFD with PSC fractions can improve glycemia and may have a protective role against HFD-induced alterations in gut microbiota and mucus layer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Fermentation Patterns of Rice Bran Components by Human Gut Microbiota
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1237; doi:10.3390/nu9111237
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized
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Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Fresh fecal samples collected from healthy adults (n = 10, 5 males, 5 females) were diluted with anaerobic medium. Each sample received five treatments: CTRL (no substrates), FOS (fructooligosaccharides), FAXO, RBPP, and MIX (FAXO with RBPP). Samples were incubated at 37 °C and an aliquot was withdrawn at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h Results showed that SCFA production was significantly increased with FAXO and was comparable to fermentation with FOS, a well-established prebiotic. RBPP did not increase SCFA productions, and no significant differences in total SCFA production were observed between FAXO and MIX, indicating that RBPP does not modify FAXO fermentation. Changes in microbiota population were found in FAXO treatment, especially in Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Dorea populations, indicating that FAXO might modulate microbiota profiles. RBPP and MIX increased Faecalibacterium, specifically F. prausnitzii. Combined FAXO and RBPP fermentation increased abundance of butyrogenic bacteria, Coprococcus and Roseburia, suggesting some interactive activity. Results from this study support the potential for FAXO and RBPP from rice bran to promote colon health through a prebiotic function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Mass-Media Campaign to Increase the Awareness of the Need to Reduce Discretionary Salt Use in the South African Population
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1238; doi:10.3390/nu9111238
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 12 November 2017
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Abstract
The South African strategic plan to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes reducing population salt intake to less than 5 g/day. A mass media campaign was undertaken to increase public awareness of the association between high salt intake, blood pressure and CVD, and focused
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The South African strategic plan to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes reducing population salt intake to less than 5 g/day. A mass media campaign was undertaken to increase public awareness of the association between high salt intake, blood pressure and CVD, and focused on the reduction of discretionary salt intake. Community based surveys, before and after the campaign, were conducted in a cohort of black women aged 18–55 years. Questions on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding salt use were asked. Current interest in engaging with salt reduction behaviors was assessed using the “stage of change” model. Five hundred fifty women participated in the baseline study and 477 in the follow-up survey. Most of the indicators of knowledge, attitudes and behavior change show a significant move towards considering and initiating reduced salt consumption. Post intervention, significantly more participants reported that they were taking steps to control salt intake (38% increased to 59.5%, p < 0.0001). In particular, adding salt while cooking and at the table occurred significantly less frequently. The findings suggest that mass media campaigns may be an effective tool to use as part of a strategy to reduce discretionary consumption of salt among the population along with other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reducing Dietary Sodium and Improving Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Iodine Intake and Offspring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Large Prospective Cohort Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1239; doi:10.3390/nu9111239
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Current knowledge about the relationship between mild to moderately inadequate maternal iodine intake and/or supplemental iodine on child neurodevelopment is sparse. Using information from 77,164 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, this study explored associations between maternal iodine intake
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Current knowledge about the relationship between mild to moderately inadequate maternal iodine intake and/or supplemental iodine on child neurodevelopment is sparse. Using information from 77,164 mother-child pairs in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, this study explored associations between maternal iodine intake and child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry and maternally-reported child ADHD symptoms at eight years of age. Pregnant women reported food and supplement intakes by questionnaire in gestational week 22. In total, 1725 children (2.2%) were diagnosed with ADHD. In non-users of supplemental iodine (53,360 mothers), we found no association between iodine intake from food and risk of child ADHD diagnosis (p = 0.89), while low iodine from food (<200 µg/day) was associated with higher child ADHD symptom scores (adjusted difference in score up to 0.08 standard deviation (SD), p < 0.001, n = 19,086). In the total sample, we found no evidence of beneficial effects of maternal use of iodine-containing supplements (n = 23,804) on child ADHD diagnosis or symptom score. Initiation of iodine supplement use in gestational weeks 0–12 was associated with an increased risk of child ADHD (both measures). In conclusion, insufficient maternal iodine intake was associated with increased child ADHD symptom scores at eight years of age, but not with ADHD diagnosis. No reduction of risk was associated with maternal iodine supplement use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine and Health throughout the Lifecourse)
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Open AccessArticle A Cross-Sectional Study of Nutrient Intake and Health Status among Older Adults in Yogyakarta Indonesia
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1240; doi:10.3390/nu9111240
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Many communities around the world, particularly developing countries including Indonesia, are experiencing population ageing. There is little knowledge regarding the impact of malnutrition, or its prevalence within rural compared to urban areas, on the nutritional, functional and mental status of community-living older residents
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Many communities around the world, particularly developing countries including Indonesia, are experiencing population ageing. There is little knowledge regarding the impact of malnutrition, or its prevalence within rural compared to urban areas, on the nutritional, functional and mental status of community-living older residents in these countries. Hence, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics, nutritional, mental and functional status, and energy and nutrient intake of community-dwelling Indonesians from both rural and urban areas of Yogyakarta. Older individuals were included in the study if they had been living in Yogyakarta for the last year and were aged ≥65 years (n = 527; mean ± SD age of 74 ± 7 years). Rural compared with urban participants had a lower level of education and income, more hospital admissions, less dietary protein intake, lower cognitive function, poorer nutritional status and grip strength, but faster gait speed while being more dependent on assistance to perform daily activities (all p < 0.05). Cognitive function was more strongly associated than nutritional status with physical function. Rural older Indonesians living in Yogyakarta were more likely than urban older people to be malnourished and cognitively impaired, and to have associated reductions in functional capacity and independence. Strategies to improve cognitive function and nutritional status are therefore important for the wellbeing of Indonesian citizens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of a Lactobacillus Salivarius Probiotic on a Double-Species Streptococcus Mutans and Candida Albicans Caries Biofilm
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1242; doi:10.3390/nu9111242
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-cariogenic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius by reducing pathogenic species and biofilm mass in a double-species biofilm model. Coexistence of S. mutans with C. albicans can cause dental caries progression or recurrence of the disease
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-cariogenic effects of Lactobacillus salivarius by reducing pathogenic species and biofilm mass in a double-species biofilm model. Coexistence of S. mutans with C. albicans can cause dental caries progression or recurrence of the disease in the future. Fifty-nine children with diagnosed early childhood caries (ECC) were recruited onto the study. The condition of the children’s dentition was defined according to the World Health Organization guidelines. The participants were divided into children with initial enamel demineralization and children showing dentin damage. The study was performed on the S. mutans and C. albicans clinical strains, isolated from dental plaque of patients with ECC. The effect of a probiotic containing Lactobacillus salivarius on the ability of S. mutans and C. albicans to produce a double-species biofilm was investigated in an in vitro model. The biomass of the formed/non-degraded biofilm was analyzed on the basis of its crystal violet staining. The number of colonies of S. mutans and C. albicans (CFU/mL, colony forming units/mL) forming the biofilm was determined. Microorganism morphology in the biofilm was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In vitro analysis demonstrated that the presence of S. mutans increased the number of C. albicans colonies (CFU/mL); the double-species biofilm mass and hyphal forms produced in it by the yeast. L. salivarius inhibited the cariogenic biofilm formation of C. albicans and S. mutans. Under the influence of the probiotic; the biofilm mass and the number of S. mutans; C. albicans and S. mutans with C. albicans colonies in the biofilm was decreased. Moreover; it can be noted that after the addition of the probiotic; fungi did not form hyphae or germ tubes of pathogenic potential. These results suggest that L. salivarius can secrete intermediates capable of inhibiting the formation of cariogenic S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm; and may inhibit fungal morphological transformation and thereby reduce the pathogenicity of C. albicans; weakening its pathogenic potential. Further research is required to prove or disprove the long-term effects of the preparation and to achieve preventive methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Tucum-do-Cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) May Promote Anti-Aging Effect by Upregulating SIRT1-Nrf2 Pathway and Attenuating Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1243; doi:10.3390/nu9111243
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Aging may be related to oxidative damage accumulation and a low-grade inflammation, both responses are modulated by iron and phytochemicals. This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) consumption on the expression of sirtuins (SIRT 1 and 3) and senescence
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Aging may be related to oxidative damage accumulation and a low-grade inflammation, both responses are modulated by iron and phytochemicals. This study investigated the effect of tucum-do-cerrado (Bactris setosa Mart.) consumption on the expression of sirtuins (SIRT 1 and 3) and senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30), and on the redox and inflammatory responses, in adult rats supplemented or not with dietary iron. Male Wistar rats were treated for 12 weeks with: control diet (CT); iron enriched-diet (+Fe); control diet + 15% tucum-do-cerrado (Tuc); or iron enriched-diet + 15% tucum-do-cerrado (Tuc + Fe). Iron supplementation (+Fe) increased liver, spleen and intestine iron levels, transferrin saturation, serum iron, serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels, hepatic carbonyl content and and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, hepatic Nrf2 protein and Nqo1 mRNA levels and decreased the renal Sirt1 mRNA levels in relation to CT group. Tucum-do-cerrado consumption (Tuc) increased hepatic SOD activity, Nrf2 and SIRT1 mRNA and protein contents, and Nqo1 mRNA levels, while it decreased the renal SOD activity compared with the CT diet. The consumption of tucum-do-cerrado associated with the iron-enriched diet (Tuc + Fe) increased the iron levels in tissues and serum transferrin saturation, compared to the CT diet, while promoting a decrease in hepatic carbonyl and renal malondialdehyde levels, marginally reducing serum IL-6 levels, and increasing hepatic SIRT1 protein content, renal Sirt1 and hepatic Nrf2 mRNA levels, compared to the +Fe group. None of the treatments altered Smp30 mRNA levels. The results suggest that tucum-do-cerrado consumption might promote an anti-aging effect by increasing SIRT1 expression, which may enhance Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels and its downstream pathway, which in turn decrease oxidative damage to proteins and the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), induced by iron excess. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Serum 25(OH)D Status and Blood Pressure in Participants of a Community-Based Program Taking Vitamin D Supplements
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1244; doi:10.3390/nu9111244
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for hypertension. Methods: We assessed 8155 participants in a community-based program to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and blood pressure (BP) and the influence of vitamin D supplementation on hypertension. Participants
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Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for hypertension. Methods: We assessed 8155 participants in a community-based program to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and blood pressure (BP) and the influence of vitamin D supplementation on hypertension. Participants were provided vitamin D supplements to reach a target serum 25(OH)D > 100 nmol/L. A nested case-control study was conducted to examine the effect of achieving physiological vitamin D status in those who were hypertensive and not taking BP-lowering medication, and hypertensive participants that initiated BP-lowering medication after program entry. Results: At baseline, 592 participants (7.3%) were hypertensive; of those, 71% were no longer hypertensive at follow-up (12 ± 3 months later). There was a significant negative association between BP and serum 25(OH)D level (systolic BP: coefficient = −0.07, p < 0.001; diastolic BP: coefficient = −0.1, p < 0.001). Reduced mean systolic (−18 vs. −14 mmHg) and diastolic (−12 vs. −12 mmHg) BP, pulse pressure (−5 vs. −1 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (−14 vs. −13 mmHg) were not significantly different between hypertensive participants who did and did not take BP-lowering medication. Conclusion: Improved serum 25(OH)D concentrations in hypertensive individuals who were vitamin D insufficient were associated with improved control of systolic and diastolic BP. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutritional Profile and Dietary Patterns of Lebanese Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A Case-Control Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1245; doi:10.3390/nu9111245
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more associated with health outcomes than nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile and the dietary patterns of Lebanese NAFLD patients and compare it with controls. During this study; 112 NAFLD Lebanese adult patients (55 men and 57 women); and 110 controls (44 men and 66 women) were recruited. Dietary intake was evaluated by two 24-h recalls and a semi-quantitative 90-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by factor analysis. Results from the study demonstrated that 40% of cases belonged to the high fruit group as compared to 30% following a high meat; fast food dietary pattern. Both groups increased the odds of NAFLD by four-fold (p < 0.05). The traditional diet decreases the odds by 33% after adjustment with the covariables. The high fruit diet group was, as with the high meat, fast food dietary pattern, the main potential risk factor for NAFLD in Lebanese patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of a Lutein and Zeaxanthin Intervention on Cognitive Function: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Younger Healthy Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1246; doi:10.3390/nu9111246
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD) are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have
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Background: Past studies have suggested that higher lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) levels in serum and in the central nervous system (as quantified by measuring macular pigment optical density, MPOD) are related to improved cognitive function in older adults. Very few studies have addressed the issue of xanthophylls and cognitive function in younger adults, and no controlled trials have been conducted to date to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z can change cognitive function in this population. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not supplementation with L + Z could improve cognitive function in young (age 18–30), healthy adults. Design: A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial design was used. Fifty-one young, healthy subjects were recruited as part of a larger study on xanthophylls and cognitive function. Subjects were randomized into active supplement (n = 37) and placebo groups (n = 14). MPOD was measured psychophysically using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry. Cognitive function was measured using the CNS Vital Signs testing platform. MPOD and cognitive function were measured every four months for a full year of supplementation. Results: Supplementation increased MPOD significantly over the course of the year, vs. placebo (p < 0.001). Daily supplementation with L + Z and increases in MPOD resulted in significant improvements in spatial memory (p < 0.04), reasoning ability (p < 0.05) and complex attention (p < 0.04), above and beyond improvements due to practice effects. Conclusions: Supplementation with L + Z improves CNS xanthophyll levels and cognitive function in young, healthy adults. Magnitudes of effects are similar to previous work reporting correlations between MPOD and cognition in other populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Supplement Use among Australian Adults: Findings from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1248; doi:10.3390/nu9111248
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
(1) Background: Supplement use is prevalent worldwide; however, there are limited studies examining the characteristics of people who take supplements in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the demographics, lifestyle habits and health status of supplement users; (2) Methods: Adults aged >19 years
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(1) Background: Supplement use is prevalent worldwide; however, there are limited studies examining the characteristics of people who take supplements in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the demographics, lifestyle habits and health status of supplement users; (2) Methods: Adults aged >19 years (n = 4895) were included from the 2011–2012 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS). A supplement user was defined as anyone who took one or more supplements on either of two 24-h dietary recalls. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of supplement use, according to demographics, lifestyle characteristics and health status of participants; (3) Results: Supplement use was reported by 47% of women and 34% of men, and supplement use was higher among older age groups, among those with higher education levels and from areas reflecting the least socioeconomic disadvantaged. An association was found between blood pressure and supplement use; (4) Conclusions: A substantial proportion of Australians take supplements. Further investigation into the social, psychological and economic determinants that motivate the use of supplements is required, to ensure appropriate use of supplements among Australian adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessArticle Evaluating Differences in Aluminum Exposure through Parenteral Nutrition in Neonatal Morbidities
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1249; doi:10.3390/nu9111249
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Aluminum is a common contaminant in many components of parenteral nutrition, especially calcium and phosphate additives. Although long-term effects have been described in the literature, short-term effects are not well-known. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration recommends maintaining aluminum at <5 mcg/kg/day. This
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Aluminum is a common contaminant in many components of parenteral nutrition, especially calcium and phosphate additives. Although long-term effects have been described in the literature, short-term effects are not well-known. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration recommends maintaining aluminum at <5 mcg/kg/day. This was a single center, retrospective case-control study of 102 neonatal intensive care unit patients. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis, rickets/osteopenia, or seizures and received at least 14 days of parenteral nutrition. Patients were matched 1:1 with control patients by gestational age and birth weight. Mean total aluminum exposure for the 14 days of parenteral nutrition was calculated using manufacturer label information. Differences in mean aluminum exposure between cases and controls, as well as subgroup analysis in those with renal impairment or cholestasis, was conducted. Aluminum exposure in patients meeting inclusion criteria closely mirrored the aluminum exposure of control patients. The difference in aluminum exposure was not found to be statistically significant, except in patients with cholestasis. Although the study found no difference in aluminum exposure in short-term complications with neonates, long-term complications are well established and may warrant the need to monitor and limit neonatal aluminum exposure. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use among College Students: A Nationwide Survey in Japan
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1250; doi:10.3390/nu9111250
Received: 20 September 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
To clarify the prevalence of dietary supplement use among college students, we conducted Internet-based nationwide questionnaire surveys with 157,595 Japanese college students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were registrants of Macromill Inc. (Tokyo, Japan). Among the 9066 respondents (response rate
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To clarify the prevalence of dietary supplement use among college students, we conducted Internet-based nationwide questionnaire surveys with 157,595 Japanese college students aged between 18 to 24 years old who were registrants of Macromill Inc. (Tokyo, Japan). Among the 9066 respondents (response rate 5.8%), 16.8% were currently using dietary supplements. The prevalence of dietary supplement use did not differ significantly between males (17.1%) and females (16.7%). However, it increased according to their grade (13.1% to 20.5%), and it was higher in medical and pharmaceutical college students (22.0%) compared to others (16.7%). The main purpose of dietary supplement use was for the health benefits in both males and females. Other reasons were to build muscle in males, and as a beauty supplement and for weight loss in females. According to the purpose of dietary supplement use, the most commonly-used dietary supplements were vitamin/mineral supplements in both males and females, then protein and weight loss supplements in males and females, respectively. Although most students obtained information about dietary supplements via the Internet, they typically purchased the supplements from drug stores. Of the students surveyed, 7.5% who were currently using or used to use dietary supplements experienced adverse effects, with no significant difference between genders (8.8% in male, 7.0% in female). In conclusion, the prevalence of dietary supplement use increased with grade among college students in Japan. Some of them experienced adverse effects. Education may be important to prevent adverse effects resulting from supplement use in college. Full article
Open AccessArticle Plasma Amino Acid Abnormalities in Chronic Heart Failure. Mechanisms, Potential Risks and Targets in Human Myocardium Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1251; doi:10.3390/nu9111251
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 31 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 November 2017 / Published: 15 November 2017
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Abstract
The goal of this study was to measure arterial amino acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and relate them to left ventricular function and disease severity. Amino acids (AAs) play a crucial role for heart protein-energy metabolism. In heart failure,
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The goal of this study was to measure arterial amino acid levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and relate them to left ventricular function and disease severity. Amino acids (AAs) play a crucial role for heart protein-energy metabolism. In heart failure, arterial AAs, which are the major determinant of AA uptake by the myocardium, are rarely measured. Forty-one subjects with clinically stable CHF (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II to IV) were analyzed. After overnight fasting, blood samples from the radial artery were taken to measure AA concentrations. Calorie (KcalI), protein-, fat-, carbohydrate-intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), total daily energy expenditure (REE × 1.3), and cardiac right catheterization variables were all measured. Eight matched controls were compared for all measurements, with the exception of cardiac catheterization. Compared with controls, CHF patients had reduced arterial AA levels, of which both their number and reduced rates are related to Heart Failure (HF) severity. Arterial aspartic acid correlated with stroke volume index (r = 0.6263; p < 0.0001) and cardiac index (r = 0.4243; p = 0.0028). The value of arterial aspartic acid (µmol/L) multiplied by the cardiac index was associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (r = 0.3765; p = 0.0076). All NYHA groups had adequate protein intake (≥1.1 g/kg/day) and inadequate calorie intake (KcalI < REE × 1.3) was found only in class IV patients. This study showed that CHF patients had reduced arterial AA levels directly related to clinical disease severity and left ventricular dysfunction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Effect of Barley Sprout Extract via Enhancement of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2 Related Factor 2 Activity and Glutathione Synthesis
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1252; doi:10.3390/nu9111252
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant
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We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant effect of BSE involves enhancing nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and GSH synthesis to inhibit alcohol-induced oxidative liver injury. Mice fed alcohol for four weeks exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunostaining in the liver, whereas treatment with BSE (100 mg/kg) prevented these effects. Similarly, exposure to BSE (0.1–1 mg/mL) significantly reduced oxidative cell death induced by t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP, 300 μM) and stabilized the mitochondrial membrane potential (∆ψ). BSE dose-dependently increased the activity of Nrf2, a potential transcriptional regulator of antioxidant genes, in HepG2 cells. Therefore, increased expression of its target genes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) was observed. Since GCLC is involved in the rate-limiting step of GSH synthesis, BSE increased the GSH level and decreased both cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) expression and taurine level. Because cysteine is a substrate for both taurine and GSH synthesis, a decrease in CDO expression would further contribute to increased cysteine availability for GSH synthesis. In conclusion, BSE protected the liver cells from oxidative stress by activating Nrf2 and increasing GSH synthesis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Magnesium and Incident Frailty in Older People at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: An Eight-Year Longitudinal Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1253; doi:10.3390/nu9111253
Received: 21 October 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Inadequate magnesium (Mg) intake is associated with lower physical performance, but the relationship with frailty in older people is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher dietary Mg intake is associated with a lower risk of frailty in a large cohort of
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Inadequate magnesium (Mg) intake is associated with lower physical performance, but the relationship with frailty in older people is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether higher dietary Mg intake is associated with a lower risk of frailty in a large cohort of North American individuals. Details regarding Mg intake were recorded through a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and categorized as greater than/equal to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) vs. lower. Frailty was defined using the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures index. Multivariable Cox’s regression analyses, calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were undertaken by sex. In total, 4421 individuals with knee osteoarthritis or who were at high risk without frailty at baseline (mean age: 61.3, females = 58.0%) were followed for 8 years. After adjusting for 11 potential baseline confounders, reaching the RDA for Mg lowered risk of frailty among men (total n = 1857, HR = 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26–0.93), whilst no significant associations were found in women (total n = 2564). Each 100 mg of dietary Mg intake at baseline corresponded to a 22% reduction in men (HR = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62–0.97; p = 0.03), but not in women (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.89–1.23). In conclusion, higher dietary Mg intake appears to reduce the risk of frailty in men, but not in women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Intake and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Growth, Gastrointestinal Tolerance and Stool Characteristics of Healthy Term Infants Fed an Infant Formula Containing Hydrolyzed Whey Protein (63%) and Intact Casein (37%): A Randomized Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1254; doi:10.3390/nu9111254
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
To investigate whether healthy term infants, fed an infant formula containing hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP-F, hydrolyzed whey/intact casein =63/37), differ in growth, gastrointestinal tolerance and stool characteristics from those fed an infant formula containing intact whey protein (IWP-F, intact whey/intact casein =61/39) or
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To investigate whether healthy term infants, fed an infant formula containing hydrolyzed whey protein (HWP-F, hydrolyzed whey/intact casein =63/37), differ in growth, gastrointestinal tolerance and stool characteristics from those fed an infant formula containing intact whey protein (IWP-F, intact whey/intact casein =61/39) or breast milk. Healthy term infants, born within 14 days of the study’s commencement, were randomly assigned to be fed IWP-F or HWP-F until 13 weeks of age, and breast-fed (BF) infants were enrolled as a reference group. Anthropometric measurements, gastrointestinal tolerance indexes and stool characteristics were assessed at baseline, and 7 and 13 weeks of age. There were no significant differences in any growth measurements and the occurrence of crying, spit-up and difficult defecation among the three feeding groups during the study period. However, daily feeding frequency was consistently lower in the formula-fed infants than in the BF group throughout the study (p < 0.05), and infants in the HWP-F group consumed more formula than those in the IWP-F group at 7 and 13 weeks of age (p ≤ 0.002). The HWP-F-fed infants had more similar stool characteristics to the breast-fed infants than infants in the IWP-F group at 13 weeks of age, regardless of frequency, volume, color or consistency of stool. This study demonstrates that the HWP-F could support the normal growth of healthy term infants, to a comparable extent to that of breast-fed infants during the first three months of life. Moreover, stool characteristics of HWP-F-fed infants are much closer to breast-fed infants than IWP-F-fed infants, but no significant gastrointestinal tolerance improvement was observed in HWP-F group. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Perception of Dietary Fiber Mediate the Impact of Nutrition Knowledge on Eating Fiber-Rich Bread?
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1255; doi:10.3390/nu9111255
Received: 16 August 2017 / Revised: 7 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
The average daily intake of fiber is still too low in relation to nutritional recommendations, as was found in several studies. Therefore, it is necessary to recommend ways to increase fiber intake in the diet. Increasing the consumption of bread rich in fiber
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The average daily intake of fiber is still too low in relation to nutritional recommendations, as was found in several studies. Therefore, it is necessary to recommend ways to increase fiber intake in the diet. Increasing the consumption of bread rich in fiber as a substitute of white bread is one of the ways to increase fiber intake. The aim of this study was to find out whether nutrition knowledge and perception of dietary fiber affected the frequency of eating wholemeal bread and white bread fortified with fiber. The data were collected in 2014 through a cross-sectional quantitative survey that was performed under the Bioproduct project among a group of 1013 Polish adults. The associations between variables were investigated using multiple regression analysis. The respondents’ general knowledge on nutrition influenced their knowledge on fiber intake (correlation coefficient r = 0.30). Respondents with a greater knowledge perceived higher benefits of consuming cereal products that were fortified with fiber (r = 0.78), and attached greater importance to the information on the label (r = 0.39) as well. The nutrition knowledge determined the familiarity with fiber-enriched bread and the consumption of this product (r = 0.40) to a greater degree than the frequency of wholemeal bread consumption (r = −0.10). The respondents’ perception of dietary fiber was observed to play a partial mediation role between the knowledge on nutrition and the consumption of both kinds of breads, suggesting that it can be an important predictor of bread consumption. To increase the consumption of bread that is rich in fiber, emphasis should be laid on specific information on fiber, referring to food products as well as on individual’s perception of those products. The said information should be reinforced along with overall communication regarding nutrition to influence the bread-related decisions. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Correlation Study of DHA Intake Estimated by a FFQ and Concentrations in Plasma and Erythrocytes in Mid- and Late Pregnancy
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1256; doi:10.3390/nu9111256
Received: 21 August 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
Adequate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the optimal growth and development of the fetus. Maternal DHA content fluctuates during pregnancy. The correlation of DHA content with dietary intake might be varied over the course of pregnancy. We aimed to compare the dietary
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Adequate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is essential for the optimal growth and development of the fetus. Maternal DHA content fluctuates during pregnancy. The correlation of DHA content with dietary intake might be varied over the course of pregnancy. We aimed to compare the dietary DHA intake, estimated by a DHA-specific semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) against its blood content, among mid- and late-term pregnant women. A total of 804 Chinese pregnant women completed the tailored FFQ and provided fasting venous blood samples. Dietary DHA intake (mg/day) in the previous month was calculated from the FFQ using Chinese Food Composition Table. DHA concentrations (weight percent of total fatty acids) in plasma and erythrocytes were measured by capillary gas chromatography. Spearman correlation coefficients (rs) between DHA intake and its relative concentrations were calculated. After adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, stage of pregnancy, parity, education level, ethnicity, and annual family income per capita, the correlation coefficients of DHA intake with its concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes were 0.35 and 0.33, respectively (p < 0.001). The correlations were relatively stronger among women in late pregnancy (rs = 0.44 in plasma and 0.39 in erythrocytes) than those in mid-pregnancy (rs = 0.25 and 0.26). The significant correlations were consistently observed in subgroups stratified by regions, except for erythrocytes in women living in a coastland area. Multiple regression analyses also indicated significant positive linear correlations between DHA intake and its plasma or erythrocytes concentrations (p < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary DHA intake, estimated by the FFQ, was positively correlated with its concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes in Chinese pregnant women, especially for women in late pregnancy, with the exception of the erythrocytes of those living in a coastland area. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Validity and Reproducibility of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Dietary Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1257; doi:10.3390/nu9111257
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in
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Dietary factors play a major role in the development of colorectal cancer. This study evaluated the reproducibility and validity of a 109-food item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) to measure the consumption of foods and nutrients related to the development of colorectal cancer in a population aged ≥50 years in Flanders, Belgium. A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered two times in a period of two weeks to evaluate reproducibility (FFQ1 and FFQ2). The validity of the FFQ was assessed by comparing FFQ1 against the 3-day diary method (3 DD). A total of 162 respondents (mean age 57.5 years) provided data for the FFQ, of whom 156 also participated in the validity assessment. Mean differences in the intake of foods and nutrients between FFQ1 and FFQ2 were, overall, small and statistically insignificant. However, a higher estimation was observed by FFQ1 as compared to the 3-DD method for the majority of food groups and nutrient intake in the validity assessment. A systematic mean difference (g/day) was observed for eight food groups in the Bland–Altman agreement test; the largest was for fruit intake. Regarding the nutrients, a systematic mean difference was observed in calcium, fat, and vitamin D intake. Overall, the reproducibility of the FFQ was good, and its validity could be satisfactory for estimating absolute food and nutrient intakes and ranking individuals according to high and low intake categories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Micronutrient Deficiencies among Breastfeeding Infants in Tanzania
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1258; doi:10.3390/nu9111258
Received: 25 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed
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Infant mortality accounts for the majority of child deaths in Tanzania, and malnutrition is an important underlying cause. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to describe the micronutrient status of infants in Tanzania and assess predictors of infant micronutrient deficiency. We analyzed serum vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin levels from 446 infants at two weeks of age, 408 infants at three months of age, and 427 mothers three months post-partum. We used log-Poisson regression to estimate relative risk of being deficient in vitamin D and vitamin B12 for infants in each age group. The prevalence of vitamin D and vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 60% and 30% at two weeks to 9% and 13% at three months respectively. Yet, the prevalence of insufficiency at three months was 49% for vitamin D and 17% for vitamin B12. Predictors of infant vitamin D deficiency were low birthweight, urban residence, maternal education, and maternal vitamin D status. Maternal vitamin B12 status was the main predictor for infant vitamin B12 deficiency. The majority of infants had sufficient levels of folate or ferritin. Further research is necessary to examine the potential benefits of improving infants’ nutritional status through vitamin D and B12 supplements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Association between Food Addiction and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Investigation
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1259; doi:10.3390/nu9111259
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
In recent years, there has been a growing focus on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) as core features associated with eating psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i) the association between dysfunctional eating patterns (i.e.,
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In recent years, there has been a growing focus on early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) as core features associated with eating psychopathology. The aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i) the association between dysfunctional eating patterns (i.e., food addiction and binge eating) and EMSs, and (ii) the association between food addiction and EMSs after controlling for potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology). Participants were 70 overweight and obese women seeking low-energy-diet therapy. The patients were administered self-report measures investigating food addiction, binge eating, EMSs, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Food addiction severity was strongly associated with all main schema domains. Binge eating severity was positively related to disconnection/rejection (r = 0.41; p < 0.01), impaired limits (r = 0.26; p < 0.05), and other-directedness domains (r = 0.27; p < 0.05). The disconnection/rejection schema was independently associated with food addiction severity, after controlling for the presence of other potential confounding variables (i.e., binge eating severity and psychopathology) suggesting that this domain may be a crucial factor for the development of food addiction. Full article
Open AccessArticle Adherence to Hunger Training over 6 Months and the Effect on Weight and Eating Behaviour: Secondary Analysis of a Randomised Controlled Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1260; doi:10.3390/nu9111260
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of
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Monitoring blood glucose prior to eating can teach individuals to eat only when truly hungry, but how adherence to ‘hunger training’ influences weight loss and eating behaviour is uncertain. This exploratory, secondary analysis from a larger randomized controlled trial examined five indices of adherence to ‘hunger training’, chosen a priori, to examine which adherence measure best predicted weight loss over 6 months. We subsequently explored how the best measure of adherence influenced eating behavior in terms of intuitive and emotional eating. Retention was 72% (n = 36/50) at 6 months. Frequency of hunger training booklet entry most strongly predicted weight loss, followed by frequency of blood glucose measurements. Participants who completed at least 60 days of booklet entry (of recommended 63 days) lost 6.8 kg (95% CI: 2.6, 11.0; p < 0.001) more weight than those who completed fewer days. They also had significantly higher intuitive eating scores than those who completed 30 days or less of booklet entry; a difference (95% CI) of 0.73 (0.12, 1.35) in body-food choice congruence and 0.79 (0.06, 1.51) for eating for physical rather than emotional reasons. Adherent participants also reported significantly lower scores for emotional eating of −0.70 (−1.13, −0.27). Following hunger training and focusing on simply recording ratings of hunger on a regular basis can produce clinically significant weight loss and clinically relevant improvements in eating behaviour. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Kappaphycus alvarezii as a Food Supplement Prevents Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1261; doi:10.3390/nu9111261
Received: 5 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 17 November 2017
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Abstract
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a
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The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet. H-fed rats showed symptoms of metabolic syndrome including increased body weight, total fat mass, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular collagen deposition, plasma triglycerides, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids along with fatty liver. Relative to these obese rats, Kappaphycus-treated rats showed normalized body weight and adiposity, lower systolic blood pressure, improved heart and liver structure, and lower plasma lipids, even in presence of H diet. Kappaphycus modulated the balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut, which could serve as the potential mechanism for improved metabolic variables; this was accompanied by no damage to the gut structure. Thus, whole Kappaphycus improved cardiovascular, liver, and metabolic parameters in obese rats. Full article
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Open AccessArticle WNT Inhibitory Activity of Malus Pumila miller cv Annurca and Malus domestica cv Limoncella Apple Extracts on Human Colon-Rectal Cells Carrying Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Mutations
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1262; doi:10.3390/nu9111262
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 18 November 2017
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Abstract
Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of
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Inhibitors of the Wingless-related Integration site (WNT)/β-catenin pathway have recently been under consideration as potential chemopreventive agents against Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This autosomal-dominant syndrome is caused by germline mutations in the gene coding for the protein APC and leads to hyperactivation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway, uncontrolled intestinal cell proliferation and formation of adenocarcinomas. The aim of the present work was to: (i) test, on in vitro cultures of cells carrying FAP mutations and on ex vivo biopsies of FAP patients, the WNT inhibitory activity of extracts from two common southern Italian apples, Malus pumila Miller cv. ‘Annurca’ and Malus domestica cv ‘Limoncella’; (ii) identify the mechanisms underpinning their activities and; (iii) evaluate their potency upon gastrointestinal digestion. We here show that both Annurca and Limoncella apple extracts act as WNT inhibitors, mostly thanks to their polyphenolic contents. They inhibit the pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations with active dilutions falling in ranges close to consumer-relevant concentrations. Food-grade manufacturing of apple extracts increases their WNT inhibitory activity as result of the conversion of quercetin glycosides into the aglycone quercetin, a potent WNT inhibitor absent in the fresh fruit extract. However, in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion severely affected WNT inhibitory activity of apple extracts, as result of a loss of polyphenols. In conclusion, our results show that apple extracts inhibit the WNT pathway in colon cells carrying FAP mutations and represent a potential nutraceutical alternative for the treatment of this pathology. Enteric coating is advisable to preserve the activity of the extracts in the colon-rectal section of the digestive tract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Standard vs. Calorie-Dense Immune Nutrition in Haemodynamically Compromised Cardiac Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1264; doi:10.3390/nu9111264
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Background. The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that early enteral nutrition (EN) with calorie-dense and protein rich enteral formula improves enteral energy and protein delivery in critically ill cardiac patients. Methods. Prospective randomized pilot study of 40 ventilated adult patients
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Background. The aim of study was to test the hypothesis that early enteral nutrition (EN) with calorie-dense and protein rich enteral formula improves enteral energy and protein delivery in critically ill cardiac patients. Methods. Prospective randomized pilot study of 40 ventilated adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with use of cardiopulmonary bypass receiving inotropic support postoperatively. Patients were to receive either standard isocaloric (1000 Kcal/L and 38 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20) or calorie-dense and protein-rich (1300 Kcal/L and 66.7 g/L protein) early EN (n = 20). Results. The mean time to EN initiation was 27 ± 11 h. Early EN with the calorie-dense formula provided significantly more energy and protein enteral delivery on the 2nd, (p < 0.0001), 5th (p = 0.036), and 7th days (p = 0.024), and was associated with higher levels of prealbumin concentration on the 14th day (0.13 ± 0.01 g/L and 0.21 ± 0.1 g/L; p = 0.04) and significantly increased levels of transferrin on the 3rd, 5th, and 7th day (p < 0.05) after surgery. Conclusion. Present findings support hypothesis that early EN using a calorie-dense and protein rich formula leads to better enteral energy and protein delivery and higher levels of short-lived serum proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach to Critically Ill Patients)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Dietary Intakes and Supplement Use in Paralympic Athletes
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1266; doi:10.3390/nu9111266
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary
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Dietary intakes and supplement use in Paralympic athletes remains largely unexplored, and specialized recommendations are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutrient intakes and supplement use in high-performance athletes with physical disabilities using three-day food records and a validated dietary supplement use questionnaire. A secondary aim examined gender differences in nutrient and supplement intakes. Male (n = 18) and female (n = 22) athletes were recruited from nine Paralympic sports through sporting organizations, coaches, and social media. Athletes generally met able-bodied recommendations for macronutrients. Male and female athletes often failed to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, magnesium, and potassium. On average, females did not meet the RDA for iron and calcium, whereas males did not meet the RDA for vitamin A and folate. Commonly consumed supplements were vitamin D, protein powder, sport bars, and sport drinks. Analysis of diet and supplement use within this population shows several micronutrient deficiencies and irregular use of specific supplements. Athlete support and education is required to optimize nutrition in Paralympic athletes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of High-Dose Multi-Strain Probiotic Supplementation on Neurocognitive Performance and Central Nervous System Immune Activation of HIV-1 Infected Individuals
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1269; doi:10.3390/nu9111269
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 16 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the
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Background: Gut microbiota has metabolic activity which influences mucosal homeostasis, local and systemic immune responses, and other anatomical systems (i.e., brain). The effects of dysbiosis are still poorly studied in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) positive subjects and insufficient data are available on the impairment of the gut-brain axis, despite neurocognitive disorders being commonly diagnosed in these patients. This study evaluated the impact of a probiotic supplementation strategy on intrathecal immune activation and cognitive performance in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) treated HIV-1 infected subjects. Methods: Thirty-five HIV-1 infected individuals were included in this study. At baseline (T0) a battery of tests was administered, to evaluate neurocognitive function and a lumbar puncture was performed to determine neopterin concentration in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a marker of Central Nervous System (CNS) immune activation. Subsequently, a subgroup of participants underwent a 6-month course of multi-strain probiotics supplementation; this intervention group was evaluated, after probiotic treatment, with a second lumbar puncture and with repeated neurocognitive tests. Results: At T0, all participants showed impaired results in at least one neurocognitive test and elevated neopterin concentrations in CSF. After supplementation with probiotics (T6), the interventional group presented a significant decrease in neopterin concentration and a significant improvement in several neurocognitive tests. In contrast, no significant modifications were observed in the neurocognitive performance of controls between T0 and T6. The CNS Penetration Effectiveness Score of antiretroviral therapy did not show an influence from any of the investigated variables. Conclusions: Multi-strain probiotic supplementation seems to exert a positive effect on neuroinflammation and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1 infected subjects, but large trials are needed to support the concept that modulation of the gut microbiota can provide specific neurological benefits in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessArticle Acute Effects of Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice on Blood Pressure, Hemostasis and Vascular Inflammation Markers in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1270; doi:10.3390/nu9111270
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits
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Aging is associated with a vasoconstrictive, pro-coagulant, and pro-inflammatory profile of arteries and a decline in the bioavailability of the endothelium-derived molecule nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate elicits vasodilatory, anti-coagulant and anti-inflammatory effects in younger individuals, but little is known about whether these benefits are evident in older adults. We investigated the effects of 140 mL of nitrate-rich (HI-NI; containing 12.9 mmol nitrate) versus nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (LO-NI; containing ≤0.04 mmol nitrate) on blood pressure, blood coagulation, vascular inflammation markers, plasma nitrate and nitrite before, and 3 h and 6 h after ingestion in healthy older adults (five males, seven females, mean age: 64 years, age range: 57–71 years) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Plasma nitrate and nitrite increased 3 and 6 h after HI-NI ingestion (p < 0.05). Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure decreased 3 h relative to baseline after HI-NI ingestion only (p < 0.05). The number of blood monocyte-platelet aggregates decreased 3 h after HI-NI intake (p < 0.05), indicating reduced platelet activation. The number of blood CD11b-expressing granulocytes decreased 3 h following HI-NI beetroot juice intake (p < 0.05), suggesting a shift toward an anti-adhesive granulocyte phenotype. Numbers of blood CD14++CD16+ intermediate monocyte subtypes slightly increased 6 h after HI-NI beetroot juice ingestion (p < 0.05), but the clinical implications of this response are currently unclear. These findings provide new evidence for the acute effects of nitrate-rich beetroot juice on circulating immune cells and platelets. Further long-term research is warranted to determine if these effects reduce the risk of developing hypertension and vascular inflammation with aging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessArticle A Cross-Sectional Study on the Association between 24-h Urine Osmolality and Weight Status in Older Adults
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1272; doi:10.3390/nu9111272 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP
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Data on the association between hydration and body weight in the elderly are scarce. The objective of this work was to quantify the association between 24-h urine osmolality and weight status in the elderly. A cross-sectional study was conducted within the Nutrition UP 65 study. A quota sampling was implemented to achieve a nationally representative sample of Portuguese older adults (≥65 years) according to age, sex, education and region. From a sample size of 1500 participants, 1315 were eligible for the present analysis, 57.3% were women and 23.5% were aged ≥80 years. Participants were grouped using tertiles of 24-h urine osmolality by sex. World Health Organization cutoffs were used to classify participants according to weight status. Multinomial multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to evaluate the association of tertiles of osmolality with weight status, adjusting for confounders. Odds Ratios (OR) and respective 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Being in the 3rd urine osmolality tertile (highest) was associated with a higher risk of being obese in men, OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.06, 3.66. No such association was found in women. These results highlight the need for implementing studies in order to clarify the association between hydration and weight status in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Ageing)

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Open AccessReview Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1165; doi:10.3390/nu9111165
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 7 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract
Background: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long
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Background: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Methods: This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene–diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. Conclusions: The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview Nutrimiromics: Role of microRNAs and Nutrition in Modulating Inflammation and Chronic Diseases
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1168; doi:10.3390/nu9111168
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Nutrimiromics studies the influence of the diet on the modification of gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to microRNAs (miRNAs), which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases. miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that are
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Nutrimiromics studies the influence of the diet on the modification of gene expression due to epigenetic processes related to microRNAs (miRNAs), which may affect the risk for the development of chronic diseases. miRNAs are a class of non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that are usually involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing by inducing mRNA degradation or translational repression by binding to a target messenger RNA. They can be controlled by environmental and dietary factors, particularly by isolated nutrients or bioactive compounds, indicating that diet manipulation may hold promise as a therapeutic approach in modulating the risk of chronic diseases. This review summarizes the evidence regarding the influence of nutrients and bioactive compounds on the expression of miRNAs related to inflammation and chronic disease in several models (cell culture, animal models, and human trials). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenomics)
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Open AccessReview Food-Related Impulsivity in Obesity and Binge Eating Disorder—A Systematic Update of the Evidence
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1170; doi:10.3390/nu9111170
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
The specific eating pattern of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) patients has provoked the assumption that BED might represent a phenotype within the obesity spectrum that is characterized by increased impulsivity. Following the guidelines of the PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews
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The specific eating pattern of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) patients has provoked the assumption that BED might represent a phenotype within the obesity spectrum that is characterized by increased impulsivity. Following the guidelines of the PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses), we here provide a systematic update on the evidence on food-related impulsivity in obese individuals, with and without BED, as well as normal-weight individuals. We separately analyzed potential group differences in the impulsivity components of reward sensitivity and rash-spontaneous behavior. Our search resulted in twenty experimental studies with high methodological quality. The synthesis of the latest evidence consolidates conclusions drawn in our initial systematic review that BED represents a distinct phenotype within the obesity spectrum that is characterized by increased impulsivity. Rash-spontaneous behavior in general, and specifically towards food, is increased in BED, while food-specific reward sensitivity is also increased in obese individuals without BED, but potentially to a lesser degree. A major next step for research entails the investigation of sub-domains and temporal components of inhibitory control in BED and obesity. Based on the evidence of impaired inhibitory control in BED, affected patients might profit from interventions that address impulsive behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
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Open AccessReview Performance and Health Benefits of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1171; doi:10.3390/nu9111171
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Supplementation with nitrate (NO3)-rich beetroot juice has been shown to improve exercise performance and cardiovascular (CV) responses, due to an increased nitric oxide (NO) availability. However, it is unclear whether these benefits are greater in older adults who have an
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Supplementation with nitrate (NO3)-rich beetroot juice has been shown to improve exercise performance and cardiovascular (CV) responses, due to an increased nitric oxide (NO) availability. However, it is unclear whether these benefits are greater in older adults who have an age-related decrease in NO and higher risk of disease. This systematic review examines 12 randomised, crossover, control trials, investigating food-based NO3 supplementation in older adults and its potential benefits on physiological and cognitive performances, and CV, cerebrovascular and metabolic health. Four studies found improvements in physiological performance (time to exhaustion) following dietary NO3 supplementation in older adults. Benefits on cognitive performance were unclear. Six studies reported improvements in CV health (blood pressure and blood flow), while six found no improvement. One study showed improvements in cerebrovascular health and two found no improvement in metabolic health. The current literature indicates positive effects of dietary NO3 supplementation in older adults on physiological performance, with some evidence indicating benefits on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular health. Effects on cognitive performance were mixed and studies on metabolic health indicated no benefit. However, there has been limited research conducted on the effects of dietary NO3 supplementation in older adults, thus, further study, utilising a randomised, double-blind, control trial design, is warranted. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effect of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Immune Response to Influenza Vaccination in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1175; doi:10.3390/nu9111175
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune response to influenza vaccination in adults. We conducted a literature search of Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Airiti Library,
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We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of probiotics and prebiotics on the immune response to influenza vaccination in adults. We conducted a literature search of Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Airiti Library, and PerioPath Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature in Taiwan. Databases were searched from inception to July 2017. We used the Cochrane Review risk of bias assessment tool to assess randomized controlled trial (RCT) quality. A total of 20 RCTs comprising 1979 adults were included in our systematic review. Nine RCTs including 623 participants had sufficient data to be pooled in a meta-analysis. Participants who took probiotics or prebiotics showed significant improvements in the H1N1 strain seroprotection rate (with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.83 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.19–2.82, p = 0.006, I2 = 0%), the H3N2 strain seroprotection rate (OR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.59–5.10, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%), and the B strain seroconversion rate (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.38–3.21, p < 0.001, I2 = 0%). This meta-analysis suggested that probiotics and prebiotics are effective in elevating immunogenicity by influencing seroconversion and seroprotection rates in adults inoculated with influenza vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in Insulin Signaling
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1176; doi:10.3390/nu9111176
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that controls a wide spectrum of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. mTOR forms two distinct multiprotein complexes known as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which are
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that controls a wide spectrum of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. mTOR forms two distinct multiprotein complexes known as mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), which are characterized by the presence of raptor and rictor, respectively. mTOR controls insulin signaling by regulating several downstream components such as growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10), insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1), F-box/WD repeat-containing protein 8 (Fbw8), and insulin like growth factor 1 receptor/insulin receptor (IGF-IR/IR). In addition, mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate each other through a feedback loop to control cell growth. This review outlines the current understanding of mTOR regulation in insulin signaling in the context of whole body metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary and Endogenous Sphingolipid Metabolism in Chronic Inflammation
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1180; doi:10.3390/nu9111180
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Chronic inflammation is a common underlying factor in many major metabolic diseases afflicting Western societies. Sphingolipid metabolism is pivotal in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways. The regulation of sphingolipid metabolism is in turn influenced by inflammatory pathways. In this review, we provide
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Chronic inflammation is a common underlying factor in many major metabolic diseases afflicting Western societies. Sphingolipid metabolism is pivotal in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways. The regulation of sphingolipid metabolism is in turn influenced by inflammatory pathways. In this review, we provide an overview of sphingolipid metabolism in mammalian cells, including a description of sphingolipid structure, biosynthesis, turnover, and role in inflammatory signaling. Sphingolipid metabolites play distinct and complex roles in inflammatory signaling and will be discussed. We also review studies examining dietary sphingolipids and inflammation, derived from in vitro and rodent models, as well as human clinical trials. Dietary sphingolipids appear to influence inflammation-related chronic diseases through inhibiting intestinal lipid absorption, altering gut microbiota, activation of anti-inflammatory nuclear receptors, and neutralizing responses to inflammatory stimuli. The anti-inflammatory effects observed with consuming dietary sphingolipids are in contrast to the observation that most cellular sphingolipids play roles in augmenting inflammatory signaling. The relationship between dietary sphingolipids and low-grade chronic inflammation in metabolic disorders is complex and appears to depend on sphingolipid structure, digestion, and metabolic state of the organism. Further research is necessary to confirm the reported anti-inflammatory effects of dietary sphingolipids and delineate their impacts on endogenous sphingolipid metabolism. Full article
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Open AccessReview Assessment of Micronutrient Status in Critically Ill Children: Challenges and Opportunities
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1185; doi:10.3390/nu9111185
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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Abstract
Micronutrients refer to a group of organic vitamins and inorganic trace elements that serve many functions in metabolism. Assessment of micronutrient status in critically ill children is challenging due to many complicating factors, such as evolving metabolic demands, immature organ function, and varying
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Micronutrients refer to a group of organic vitamins and inorganic trace elements that serve many functions in metabolism. Assessment of micronutrient status in critically ill children is challenging due to many complicating factors, such as evolving metabolic demands, immature organ function, and varying methods of feeding that affect nutritional dietary intake. Determination of micronutrient status, especially in children, usually relies on a combination of biomarkers, with only a few having been established as a gold standard. Almost all micronutrients display a decrease in their serum levels in critically ill children, resulting in an increased risk of deficiency in this setting. While vitamin D deficiency is a well-known phenomenon in critical illness and can predict a higher need for intensive care, serum concentrations of many trace elements such as iron, zinc, and selenium decrease as a result of tissue redistribution in response to systemic inflammation. Despite a decrease in their levels, supplementation of micronutrients during times of severe illness has not demonstrated clear benefits in either survival advantage or reduction of adverse outcomes. For many micronutrients, the lack of large and randomized studies remains a major hindrance to critically evaluating their status and clinical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Approach to Critically Ill Patients)
Open AccessReview Therapeutic Versatility of Resveratrol Derivatives
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1188; doi:10.3390/nu9111188
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 October 2017 / Published: 29 October 2017
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Abstract
Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, exhibits a remarkable range of biological activities, such as anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. However, the therapeutic application of resveratrol was encumbered for its low bioavailability. Therefore, many researchers focused on designing and synthesizing the derivatives of resveratrol
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Resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin, exhibits a remarkable range of biological activities, such as anticancer, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. However, the therapeutic application of resveratrol was encumbered for its low bioavailability. Therefore, many researchers focused on designing and synthesizing the derivatives of resveratrol to enhance the bioavailability and the pharmacological activity of resveratrol. During the past decades, a large number of natural and synthetic resveratrol derivatives were extensively studied, and the methoxylated, hydroxylated and halogenated derivatives of resveratrol received particular more attention for their beneficial bioactivity. So, in this review, we will summarize the chemical structure and the therapeutic versatility of resveratrol derivatives, and thus provide the related structure activity relationship reference for their practical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Red Wine, Resveratrol and Atrial Fibrillation
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1190; doi:10.3390/nu9111190
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Excessive alcohol intake is a well-known risk factor for AF, but this correlation is less clear with light and moderate drinking. Besides, low doses of red wine may acutely prolong repolarization and slow cardiac conduction. Resveratrol, a bioactive polyphenol found in grapes and red wine, has been linked to antiarrhythmic properties and may act as an inhibitor of both intracellular calcium release and pathological signaling cascades in AF, eliminating calcium overload and preserving the cardiomyocyte contractile function. However, there are still no clinical trials at all that prove that resveratrol supplementation leads to improved outcomes. Besides, no observational study supports a beneficial effect of light or moderate alcohol intake and a lower risk of AF. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe possible beneficial effects of red wine and resveratrol in AF, and also present studies conducted in humans regarding chronic red wine consumption, resveratrol, and AF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
Open AccessReview Omega-3 Index and Anti-Arrhythmic Potential of Omega-3 PUFAs
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1191; doi:10.3390/nu9111191
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 18 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are permanent subjects of interest in relation to the protection of cardiovascular health and the prevention of the incidence of both ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. The purpose of this updated
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are permanent subjects of interest in relation to the protection of cardiovascular health and the prevention of the incidence of both ventricular and atrial arrhythmias. The purpose of this updated review is to focus on the novel cellular and molecular effects of omega-3 PUFAs, in the context of the mechanisms and factors involved in the development of cardiac arrhythmias; to provide results of the most recent studies on the omega-3 PUFA anti-arrhythmic efficacy and to discuss the lack of the benefit in relation to omega-3 PUFA status. The evidence is in the favor of omega-3 PUFA acute and long-term treatment, perhaps with mitochondria-targeted antioxidants. However, for a more objective evaluation of the anti-arrhythmic potential of omega-3 PUFAs in clinical trials, it is necessary to monitor the basal pre-interventional omega-3 status of individuals, i.e., red blood cell content, omega-3 index and free plasma levels. In the view of evidence-based medicine, it seems to be crucial to aim to establish new approaches in the prevention of cardiac arrhythmias and associated morbidity and mortality that comes with these conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Health)
Open AccessReview Probiotic Supplementation in Preterm Infants Does Not Affect the Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1197; doi:10.3390/nu9111197
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
Probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants, but it remains to be determined whether this reduction translates into a reduction of other complications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the possible
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Probiotic supplementation reduces the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants, but it remains to be determined whether this reduction translates into a reduction of other complications. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the possible role of probiotics in altering the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Fifteen randomized controlled trials (4782 infants; probiotics: 2406) were included. None of the included studies assessed BPD as the primary outcome. Meta-analysis confirmed a significant reduction of NEC (risk ratio (RR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.81, p = 0.004; random effects model), and an almost significant reduction of LOS (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.03, p = 0.084). In contrast, meta-analysis could not demonstrate a significant effect of probiotics on BPD, defined either as oxygen dependency at 28 days of life (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.11, p = 0.900, 6 studies) or at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.20, p = 0.203, 12 studies). Meta-regression did not show any significant association between the RR for NEC or LOS and the RR for BPD. In conclusion, our results suggest that NEC and LOS prevention by probiotics does not affect the risk of developing BPD in preterm infants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview Epigenetic Regulatory Mechanisms Induced by Resveratrol
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1201; doi:10.3390/nu9111201
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Resveratrol (RVT) is one of the main natural compounds studied worldwide due to its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of RVT in all of
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Resveratrol (RVT) is one of the main natural compounds studied worldwide due to its potential therapeutic use in the treatment of many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of RVT in all of these conditions is not completely understood, as it can modify not only biochemical pathways but also epigenetic mechanisms. In this paper, we analyze the biological activities exhibited by RVT with a focus on the epigenetic mechanisms, especially those related to DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), histone deacetylase (HDAC) and lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
Open AccessReview A New Proposal for the Pathogenic Mechanism of Non-Coeliac/Non-Allergic Gluten/Wheat Sensitivity: Piecing Together the Puzzle of Recent Scientific Evidence
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1203; doi:10.3390/nu9111203
Received: 18 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
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Abstract
Non-coeliac/non-allergic gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) is a gluten-related disorder, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear. Recently, the involvement of an increased intestinal permeability has been recognized in the onset of this clinical condition. However, mechanisms through which it takes place are still unclear. In
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Non-coeliac/non-allergic gluten/wheat sensitivity (NCG/WS) is a gluten-related disorder, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear. Recently, the involvement of an increased intestinal permeability has been recognized in the onset of this clinical condition. However, mechanisms through which it takes place are still unclear. In this review, we attempt to uncover these mechanisms by providing, for the first time, an integrated vision of recent scientific literature, resulting in a new hypothesis about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in NCG/WS. According to this, the root cause of NCG/WS is a particular dysbiotic profile characterized by decreased butyrate-producing-Firmicutes and/or Bifidobacteria, leading to low levels of intestinal butyrate. Beyond a critical threshold of the latter, a chain reaction of events and vicious circles occurs, involving other protagonists such as microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and wheat α-amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs). NCG/WS is likely to be a multi-factor-onset disorder, probably transient and preventable, related to quality and balance of the diet, and not to the presence of gluten in itself. If future studies confirm our proposal, this would have important implications both for the definition of the disease, as well as for the prevention and therapeutic-nutritional management of individuals with NCG/WS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview Vitamin C and Immune Function
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1211; doi:10.3390/nu9111211
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
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Abstract
Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting
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Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram) doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview Nutritional Therapies in Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG)
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1222; doi:10.3390/nu9111222
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of more than 130 inborn errors of metabolism affecting N-linked, O-linked protein and lipid-linked glycosylation. The phenotype in CDG patients includes frequent liver involvement, especially the disorders belonging to the N-linked protein
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Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of more than 130 inborn errors of metabolism affecting N-linked, O-linked protein and lipid-linked glycosylation. The phenotype in CDG patients includes frequent liver involvement, especially the disorders belonging to the N-linked protein glycosylation group. There are only a few treatable CDG. Mannose-Phosphate Isomerase (MPI)-CDG was the first treatable CDG by high dose mannose supplements. Recently, with the successful use of d-galactose in Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1)-CDG, other CDG types have been trialed on galactose and with an increasing number of potential nutritional therapies. Current mini review focuses on therapies in glycosylation disorders affecting liver function and dietary intervention in general in N-linked glycosylation disorders. We also emphasize now the importance of early screening for CDG in patients with mild hepatopathy but also in cholestasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Liver Disease)
Open AccessReview Coffee Decreases the Risk of Endometrial Cancer: A Dose–Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1223; doi:10.3390/nu9111223
Received: 19 September 2017 / Revised: 27 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
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Abstract
Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. The dose–response relationship as well as the risk
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Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of the association between coffee consumption and risk of endometrial cancer. Methods: Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. The dose–response relationship as well as the risk of endometrial cancer for the highest versus the lowest categories of coffee consumption were assessed. Subgroup analyses considering the menopausal and receptor statuses, the smoking status, and the BMI (Body Mass Index) were performed in order to identify potential confounders. Results: We identified a total of 12 studies eligible for meta-analysis. A dose–response meta-analysis showed a decreased risk of endometrial cancer. Moreover, a subgroup analysis indicated that coffee consumption is significantly associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal cancer. Increasing coffee consumption by four cups per day was associated with a 20% reduction in endometrial cancer risk (relative risk (RR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.89) and with a 24% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.83). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that increased coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of endometrial cancer, and this association is observed also for postmenopausal cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Efficacy and Effectiveness of Carnitine Supplementation for Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1224; doi:10.3390/nu9111224
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 29 October 2017 / Accepted: 3 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Carnitine deficiency has been implicated as a potential pathway for cancer-related fatigue that could be treated with carnitine supplementation. The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the literature regarding the use of supplemental carnitine as a treatment
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Background: Carnitine deficiency has been implicated as a potential pathway for cancer-related fatigue that could be treated with carnitine supplementation. The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the literature regarding the use of supplemental carnitine as a treatment for cancer-related fatigue. Methods: Using the PRISMA guidelines, an electronic search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and reference lists was conducted. Data were extracted and independently assessed for quality using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics evidence analysis by two reviewers. In studies with positive quality ratings, a meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model on Carnitine and cancer-related fatigue. Results: Twelve studies were included for review with eight reporting improvement in measures of fatigue, while four reported no benefit. However, many studies were non-randomized, open-label and/or used inappropriate dose or comparators. Meta-analysis was performed in three studies with sufficient data. Carnitine did not significantly reduce cancer-related fatigue with a standardized mean difference (SMD) of 0.06 points ((95% CI −0.09, 0.21); p = 0.45). Conclusion: Results from studies with lower risk of bias do not support the use of carnitine supplementation for cancer-related fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Open AccessReview Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1225; doi:10.3390/nu9111225
Received: 14 September 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review
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The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1) Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2) Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3) Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
Open AccessReview Diet and Asthma: Is It Time to Adapt Our Message?
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1227; doi:10.3390/nu9111227
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder which is associated with airway inflammation. Environmental factors, in association with genetic susceptibility, play a critical role in asthma pathophysiology. Inhaled allergens, smoke exposure, indoor and outdoor air pollution are common triggers of asthma symptoms. Although the
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Asthma is a chronic respiratory disorder which is associated with airway inflammation. Environmental factors, in association with genetic susceptibility, play a critical role in asthma pathophysiology. Inhaled allergens, smoke exposure, indoor and outdoor air pollution are common triggers of asthma symptoms. Although the role of diet has clearly established mechanisms in diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and cancer, it is not commonly identified as a causal factor in asthma. However, some dietary patterns, such as the Western diet, which includes a high intake of refined grains, processed and red meats, and desserts, have pro-inflammatory effects. On the contrary, the Mediterranean diet, with high intake of fruits and vegetables has anti-inflammatory properties. The influence of food on asthma outcomes is of growing interest, but dietary habits of asthma patients are not commonly investigated in clinical practice. In this review, we focus on the impact of diet on asthma risk and asthma control. We also detail the influence of diet on obese patients with asthma. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Resveratrol against Lung Cancer: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1231; doi:10.3390/nu9111231
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
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Abstract
Uncontrolled cell growth and resistance to apoptosis characterize cancer cells. These two main features are initiated in cancer cells through mutations in key signaling molecules, which regulate pathways that are directly involved in controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring
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Uncontrolled cell growth and resistance to apoptosis characterize cancer cells. These two main features are initiated in cancer cells through mutations in key signaling molecules, which regulate pathways that are directly involved in controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis. Resveratrol (RSV), a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, has been shown to have biological effects counteracting different diseases. It has been found to provide cardio-protective, neuro-protective, immuno-modulatory, and anti-cancer health benefits. RSV has been found to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and these anticancer effects may be due to its ability to modulate signaling molecules involved in these processes. The present review summarizes the existing in vitro and in vivo studies on resveratrol and its anti-lung cancer properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation on Human Health and Disease)
Open AccessReview Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency after Bariatric Surgery
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1241; doi:10.3390/nu9111241
Received: 28 September 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
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Abstract
Morbid obesity is a lifelong disease, and all patients require complementary follow-up including nutritional surveillance by a multidisciplinary team after bariatric procedures. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) refers to an insufficient secretion of pancreatic enzymes and/or sodium bicarbonate. PEI is a known multifactorial complication
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Morbid obesity is a lifelong disease, and all patients require complementary follow-up including nutritional surveillance by a multidisciplinary team after bariatric procedures. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) refers to an insufficient secretion of pancreatic enzymes and/or sodium bicarbonate. PEI is a known multifactorial complication after upper gastrointestinal surgery, and might constitute an important clinical problem due to the large number of bariatric surgical procedures in the world. Symptoms of PEI often overlap with sequelae of gastric bypass, making the diagnosis difficult. Steatorrhea, weight loss, maldigestion and malabsorption are pathognomonic for both clinical conditions. Altered anatomy after bypass surgery can make the diagnostic process even more difficult. Fecal elastase-1 (FE1) is a useful diagnostic test. PEI should be considered in all patients after bariatric surgery with prolonged gastrointestinal complaints that are suggestive of maldigestion and/or malabsorption. Appropriate pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy should be part of the treatment algorithm in patients with confirmed PEI or symptoms suggestive of this complication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bariatric Surgery)
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Open AccessReview Probiotic, Prebiotic, and Brain Development
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1247; doi:10.3390/nu9111247
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract
Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria
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Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the existence of a link between the emotional and cognitive centres of the brain and peripheral functions through the bi-directional interaction between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system. Therefore, the use of bacteria as therapeutics has attracted much interest. Recent research has found that there are a variety of mechanisms by which bacteria can signal to the brain and influence several processes in relation to neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and behaviour. Data derived from both in vitro experiments and in vivo clinical trials have supported some of these new health implications. While recent molecular advancement has provided strong indications to support and justify the role of the gut microbiota on the gut–brain axis, it is still not clear whether manipulations through probiotics and prebiotics administration could be beneficial in the treatment of neurological problems. The understanding of the gut microbiota and its activities is essential for the generation of future personalized healthcare strategies. Here, we explore and summarize the potential beneficial effects of probiotics and prebiotics in the neurodevelopmental process and in the prevention and treatment of certain neurological human diseases, highlighting current and future perspectives in this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prebiotics and Probiotics)
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Open AccessReview Fatty Acids, Antioxidants and Physical Activity in Brain Aging
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1263; doi:10.3390/nu9111263
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants are important mediators in the central nervous system. Lipid derivatives may control the production of proinflammatory agents and regulate NF-κB activity, microglial activation, and fatty acid oxidation; on the other hand, antioxidants, such as glutathione and ascorbate, have been shown to signal through transmitter receptors and protect against acute and chronic oxidative stress, modulating the activity of different signaling pathways. Several authors have investigated the role of these nutrients in the brains of the young and the aged in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, and during brain aging due to adiposity- and physical inactivity-mediated metabolic disturbances, chronic inflammation, and oxidative stress. Through a literature review, we aimed to highlight recent data on the role of adiposity, fatty acids, antioxidants, and physical inactivity in the pathophysiology of the brain and in the molecular mechanisms of senescence. Data indicate the complexity and necessity of endogenous/dietary antioxidants for the maintenance of redox status and the control of neuroglial signaling under stress. Recent studies also indicate that omega-3 and -6 fatty acids act in a competitive manner to generate mediators for energy metabolism, influencing feeding behavior, neural plasticity, and memory during aging. Finding pharmacological or dietary resources that mitigate or prevent neurodegenerative affections continues to be a great challenge and requires additional effort from researchers, clinicians, and nutritionists in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunology: Nutrition, Exercise and Adiposity Relationships)
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Open AccessReview Effects of Nutritional Interventions during Pregnancy on Infant and Child Cognitive Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1265; doi:10.3390/nu9111265
Received: 19 October 2017 / Revised: 6 November 2017 / Accepted: 13 November 2017 / Published: 20 November 2017
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Abstract
Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. Objective: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the
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Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. Objective: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes. Design: Ten electronic databases were searched for articles published up to August 2017. The search was limited to articles published in English. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) testing the impact of any nutritional intervention (dietary counselling, education, nutrient supplementation, fortified foods and/or foods) during pregnancy on cognitive outcomes of children (<10 years old). Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility and quality using the American Dietetic Association quality criteria checklist for primary research. Standardised mean differences were used for nine cognitive domains to measure effects for meta-analyses. Results: A total of 34 RCTs were included (21 studies included children aged less than 35 months, 10 studies included children aged 36–60 months and 3 studies included children aged 61–119 months). The types of nutritional interventions included nutrient supplements, whole foods, fortified foods and nutrition education. The following nine cognition outcomes: attention, behaviour, crystallised intelligence, fluid intelligence, global cognition, memory, motor skills, visual processing, and problem solving were not significantly impacted by nutritional interventions, although 65% of studies conducted post-hoc data analyses and were likely to be underpowered. Although, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) supplementation was associated with a marginal increase in crystallised intelligence (Effect size (ES): 0.25; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): −0.04, 0.53), the effect was not statistically significant (p = 0.09), with significant study heterogeneity (p = 0.00). Conclusions: LCPUFA supplementation may be associated with an improvement in child crystallised intelligence, however further research is warranted. The remaining eight cognition domains were not significantly impacted by maternal nutritional interventions. Full article
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Open AccessReview Public and Healthcare Professionals’ Knowledge and Attitudes toward Binge Eating Disorder: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1267; doi:10.3390/nu9111267
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with
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Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurrent binge eating and marked distress in the absence of inappropriate compensatory behaviors for weight control. BED is prevalent in men and women, is associated with elevated psychosocial and functional impairment, and is associated strongly with obesity and related medical comorbidities. The aim is to provide a brief, state-of-the-art review of the major and recent findings to inform educational and awareness campaigns, stigma reduction interventions, as well as current clinical practice and future research. A narrative approach was used to synthesize emerging literature on the public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward individuals with BED in comparison to other eating disorders (EDs) or mental illness. A total of 13 articles were reviewed. Nine studies investigated community samples and four studies investigated healthcare professionals. The reviewed literature suggested that BED is perceived by the public as less impairing, less severe, and “easier-to-treat” than other EDs. Attitudes and beliefs reflecting perceived blameworthiness and lack of self-discipline were ascribed to vignettes with BED. Community studies indicated a low level of public awareness that BED constitutes a discreet eating disorder. The literature on healthcare professionals’ knowledge and attitudes toward BED remains very limited. The few existing studies suggest encouraging trends in recognition and diagnostic accuracy, yet there remains a need for increased clinical awareness of BED-associated medical complications and knowledge of full BED diagnostic criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)
Open AccessReview The Overlapping Area of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) and Wheat-Sensitive Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): An Update
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1268; doi:10.3390/nu9111268
Received: 12 October 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 21 November 2017
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Abstract
Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome
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Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms. This review article will provide clinicians with an update that directly impacts on the management of a subgroup of their IBS patients whose symptoms are triggered by wheat ingestion. Full article
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Open AccessReview Benefits of Nut Consumption on Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Multiple Potential Mechanisms of Actions
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1271; doi:10.3390/nu9111271
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts
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Epidemiological and clinical studies have indicated that nut consumption could be a healthy dietary strategy to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and related cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this review is to examine the potential mechanisms of action of nuts addressing effects on glycemic control, weight management, energy balance, appetite, gut microbiota modification, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function and blood pressure with a focus on data from both animal and human studies. The favourable effects of nuts could be explained by the unique nutrient composition and bioactive compounds in nuts. Unsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids) present in nuts may play a role in glucose control and appetite suppression. Fiber and polyphenols in nuts may also have an anti-diabetic effect by altering gut microbiota. Nuts lower serum cholesterol by reduced cholesterol absorption, inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and increased bile acid production by stimulation of 7-α hydroxylase. Arginine and magnesium improve inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial function and blood pressure. In conclusion, nuts contain compounds that favourably influence glucose homeostasis, weight control and vascular health. Further investigations are required to identify the most important mechanisms by which nuts decrease the risk of T2DM and CVD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nut Consumption for Human Health)
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Open AccessReview Prevalence of Pre-Diabetes across Ethnicities: A Review of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) for Classification of Dysglycaemia
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1273; doi:10.3390/nu9111273
Received: 2 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the
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Prediabetes can be defined by the presence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to identify individuals at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The World Health Organization (WHO, 1999) and the American Diabetes Association (ADA, 2003) utilise different cut-off values for IFG (WHO: 6.1–6.9 mmol/L; ADA: 5.6–6.9 mmol/L) but the same cut-off values for IGT (7.8–11.0 mmol/L). This review investigates whether there are differences in prevalence of IFG, IGT, and combined IFG&IGT between ethnicities, in particular Asian Chinese and European Caucasians. In total, we identified 19 studies using the WHO1999 classification, for which the average proportional prevalence for isolated (i)-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT were 43.9%, 41.0%, and 13.5%, respectively, for Caucasian and 29.2%, 49.4%, and 18.2%, respectively, for Asian. For the 14 studies using ADA2003 classification, the average proportional i-IFG, i-IGT, and combined IFG&IGT prevalences were 58.0%, 20.3%, and 19.8%, respectively, for Caucasian; 48.1%, 27.7%, and 20.5%, respectively, for Asian. Whilst not statistically different, there may be clinically relevant differences in the two populations, with our observations for both classifications indicating that prevalence of i-IFG is higher in Caucasian cohorts whilst i-IGT and combined IFG&IGT are both higher in Asian cohorts. Full article
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Open AccessReview Emotion Regulation in Binge Eating Disorder: A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1274; doi:10.3390/nu9111274
Received: 13 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 22 November 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED.
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The purpose of the present review is to provide a summary of the research findings on emotion regulation in Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Negative emotions and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies play a role in the onset and maintenance of binge eating in BED. Anger and sadness, along with negative emotions related to interpersonal experiences (i.e., disappointment, being hurt or loneliness), seem to be particularly relevant. Individuals with BED have a tendency to suppress and ruminate on their unwanted emotions, which leads to increased psychopathological thoughts and symptoms. Compared to healthy controls, they use adaptive strategies, such as reappraisal, less frequently. Evidence concerning the causal relation between negative affect and binge eating is inconclusive and still very limited. While experimental studies in a laboratory setting lack ecological validity, ecological momentary assessment studies offer more promise at unraveling the causal relationship between emotions and binge eating. Increases in negative affect are found to be antecedents of binge eating in BED. However, there seems to be less support for the possibility that binge eating serves as a means to alleviate negative affect. Finally, BED seems to be related to other forms of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, such as substance abuse and self-harm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Binge Eating Disorder)

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Open AccessErratum Erratum: The Role of Red Meat and Flavonoid Consumption on Cancer Prevention: The Korean Cancer Screening Examination Cohort; Nutrients 2017, 9, 938
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1174; doi:10.3390/nu9111174
Received: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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The authors have requested the following corrections to their paper [...]
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Open AccessLetter Limitation of Studies on Food Intake and Dietary Pattern in Iran and other Middle East Countries: Lack of Alcohol Intake Assessment
Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1183; doi:10.3390/nu9111183
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 26 October 2017 / Published: 28 October 2017
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