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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1162; doi:10.3390/nu9101162

Effect of Altering Dietary n-6:n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio with Plant and Marine-Based Supplement on Biomarkers of Bone Turnover in Healthy Adults

1
Center for Nutrition, Healthy Lifestyle and Disease Prevention, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
2
Musculoskeletal Disease Center, Loma Linda VA Healthcare Systems, Loma Linda, CA 92357, USA
3
Department of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
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Abstract

Although there is accumulating evidence for a protective role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) on bone health, there are limited studies that examine the effect of altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio with plant and marine sources of n-3 PUFA on bone health. Healthy adults (n = 24) were randomized into an eight-week crossover study with a four-week washout between treatments, with each subject consuming three of four diets. The four diets differed in the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratios and either had an algal oil supplement added or not: (Control diet (10:1); α-linolenic acid (ALA) diet (2:1); Eicosapentaenoic acid/Docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) diet (10:1 plus supplement (S) containing EPA/DHA; Combination diet (2:1 + S)). The supplement was microalgae oil that provided 1 g EPA + DHA/day. Flaxseed oil and walnuts provided 8.6 g of ALA/day in the 2:1 diets. Serum levels of c-telopeptide (CTX), procollagen Type I N-terminal peptide, and osteocalcin showed significant correlation with age but none of the bone markers or peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ mRNA expression was significantly different between the diets. Serum CTX was negatively associated with red blood cell membrane linoleic acid and ALA and positively associated with membrane DHA. Neither altering dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio from a 10:1 to a 2:1 ratio nor adding EPA/DHA supplement significantly changed bone turnover in the short term in healthy adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary n-3 fatty acids; bone turnover; peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ; ALA; EPA/DHA dietary n-3 fatty acids; bone turnover; peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor γ; ALA; EPA/DHA
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Rajaram, S.; Yip, E.L.; Reghunathan, R.; Mohan, S.; Sabaté, J. Effect of Altering Dietary n-6:n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Ratio with Plant and Marine-Based Supplement on Biomarkers of Bone Turnover in Healthy Adults. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1162.

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