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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1158; doi:10.3390/nu9101158

Fatty Acids Consumption: The Role Metabolic Aspects Involved in Obesity and Its Associated Disorders

1
Post Graduate Program in Health and Development in the Central-West Region of Brazil, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul-UFMS, Campo Grande, MS 79079-900, Brazil
2
Post-Graduate Program in Biotechnology, Catholic University Dom Bosco, Campo Grande, MS 79117-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 1 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 22 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Nutrition and Metabolic Syndrome Management)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [750 KB, uploaded 22 October 2017]   |  

Abstract

Obesity and its associated disorders, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, metabolic inflammation, dysbiosis, and non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, are involved in several molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that alter the metabolism. Food habit changes, such as the quality of fatty acids in the diet, are proposed to treat and prevent these disorders. Some studies demonstrated that saturated fatty acids (SFA) are considered detrimental for treating these disorders. A high fat diet rich in palmitic acid, a SFA, is associated with lower insulin sensitivity and it may also increase atherosclerosis parameters. On the other hand, a high intake of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids may promote positive effects, especially on triglyceride levels and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are effective at limiting the hepatic steatosis process through a series of biochemical events, such as reducing the markers of non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increasing the gene expression of lipid metabolism, decreasing lipogenic activity, and releasing adiponectin. This current review shows that the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids, MUFA, and PUFA, and especially EPA and DHA, which can be applied as food supplements, may promote effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as on metabolic inflammation, gut microbiota, and hepatic metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty acids; obesity; obesity-related metabolic dysfunction; chronic diseases fatty acids; obesity; obesity-related metabolic dysfunction; chronic diseases
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Silva Figueiredo, P.; Carla Inada, A.; Marcelino, G.; Maiara Lopes Cardozo, C.; de Cássia Freitas, K.; de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, R.; Pereira de Castro, A.; Aragão do Nascimento, V.; Aiko Hiane, P. Fatty Acids Consumption: The Role Metabolic Aspects Involved in Obesity and Its Associated Disorders. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1158.

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