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Nutrients 2017, 9(10), 1147; doi:10.3390/nu9101147

The Impact of a Weight Loss Intervention on Diet Quality and Eating Behaviours in People with Obesity and COPD

1
Priority Research Centre for Healthy Lungs, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2305, Australia
2
Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, John Hunter Hospital, New Lambton, NSW 2305, Australia
3
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 16 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract

There is a paucity of evidence to guide clinicians about appropriate management strategies for people with obesity and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We have recently published results from the first weight loss intervention in adults (>18 years) with obesity (body mass index; BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and COPD, using a low-calorie diet coupled with a partial meal replacement plan and resistance exercise training, which resulted in a 6.4% reduction in weight while maintaining skeletal muscle mass and improving health status. This sub-study aims to evaluate the intervention by (a) examining changes in dietary intake and nutritional biomarkers and (b) examining predictors of weight loss. Dietary intake was evaluated using four-day food diaries, and analysis of plasma fatty acids and plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of dietary fat intake and fruit and vegetable intake, respectively. Twenty-eight obese COPD subjects (n = 17 males, n = 11 females) with a mean (standard deviation; SD) age of 67.6 (6.3) years completed the 12-week weight loss intervention. Pre-intervention, mean (SD) BMI was 36.3 (4.6) kg/m2. Micronutrient intake improved from pre- to post-intervention, with the percentage of subjects meeting the Nutrient Reference Values increased for all micronutrients. Post-intervention, significant decreases in total (p = 0.009) and saturated fat intake (p = 0.037), and corresponding decreases in total (p = 0.007) and saturated plasma fatty acids (p = 0.003) were observed. There was a trend towards higher total carotenoids post-intervention (p = 0.078). Older age (p = 0.025), higher pre-intervention uncontrolled eating (p < 0.001) and plasma carotenoids (p = 0.009) predicted weight loss. This demonstrates the efficacy of a weight loss intervention in improving diet quality of obese COPD adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: eating behaviours; nutritional biomarkers; fatty acids; carotenoids; COPD eating behaviours; nutritional biomarkers; fatty acids; carotenoids; COPD
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MDPI and ACS Style

McLoughlin, R.F.; McDonald, V.M.; Gibson, P.G.; Scott, H.A.; Hensley, M.J.; MacDonald-Wicks, L.; Wood, L.G. The Impact of a Weight Loss Intervention on Diet Quality and Eating Behaviours in People with Obesity and COPD. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1147.

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