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Viruses, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Mouse polyomavirus uses importin-mediated transport for the delivery of its genomes into the cell [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview Natural Immunity to HIV: A Template for Vaccine Strategies
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040215
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We
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Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion. Moreover, we have recently shown that frequencies of innate marginal zone (MZ) B-cells are decreased in the blood of HESNs when compared to HIV-uninfected non-CSW women, suggesting their recruitment to peripheral sites. This coincides with the fact that levels of B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS/BAFF), known to shape the MZ pool and whose overexpression leads to MZ deregulation in HIV-infected progressors, are significantly lower in the blood of HESNs when compared to both HIV-infected CSWs and HIV-uninfected non-CSW women. Interestingly, MZ B-cells can bind HIV gp120 and produce specific IgG and IgA, and have a propensity for B regulatory potential, which could help both the fight against HIV and maintenance of low inflammatory conditions in HESNs. HESN individuals provide an exceptional opportunity to identify important clues for the development of protective devices, and efforts should aim at soliciting immune responses observed in the context of their natural immunity to HIV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV Vaccines)
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Open AccessArticle Mycoviruses as Triggers and Targets of RNA Silencing in White Mold Fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040214
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway.
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This study aimed to demonstrate the existence of antiviral RNA silencing mechanisms in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by infecting wild-type and RNA-silencing-deficient strains of the fungus with an RNA virus and a DNA virus. Key silencing-related genes were disrupted to dissect the RNA silencing pathway. Specifically, dicer genes (dcl-1, dcl-2, and both dcl-1/dcl-2) were displaced by selective marker(s). Disruption mutants were then compared for changes in phenotype, virulence, and susceptibility to virus infections. Wild-type and mutant strains were transfected with a single-stranded RNA virus, SsHV2-L, and copies of a single-stranded DNA mycovirus, SsHADV-1, as a synthetic virus constructed in this study. Disruption of dcl-1 or dcl-2 resulted in no changes in phenotype compared to wild-type S. sclerotiorum; however, the double dicer mutant strain exhibited significantly slower growth. Furthermore, the Δdcl-1/dcl-2 double mutant, which was slow growing without virus infection, exhibited much more severe debilitation following virus infections including phenotypic changes such as slower growth, reduced pigmentation, and delayed sclerotial formation. These phenotypic changes were absent in the single mutants, Δdcl-1 and Δdcl-2. Complementation of a single dicer in the double disruption mutant reversed viral susceptibility to the wild-type state. Virus-derived small RNAs were accumulated from virus-infected wild-type strains with strand bias towards the negative sense. The findings of these studies indicate that S. sclerotiorum has robust RNA silencing mechanisms that process both DNA and RNA mycoviruses and that, when both dicers are silenced, invasive nucleic acids can greatly debilitate the virulence of this fungus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Open AccessArticle piRNA Profiling of Dengue Virus Type 2-Infected Asian Tiger Mosquito and Midgut Tissues
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040213
Received: 10 February 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
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Abstract
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is
[...] Read more.
The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for the majority of arboviruses. The mosquito innate immune response is a primary determinant for arthropod-borne virus transmission, and the midgut is the first barrier to pathogen transmission. Mosquito antiviral immunity is primarily mediated by the small interfering RNA pathway. However, the roles that the P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI)-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway play in antiviral immunity in Ae. albopictus and its midgut still need further exploration. This study aimed to explore the profiles of both viral-derived and host-originated piRNAs in the whole body and midgut infected with Dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) in Ae. albopictus, and to elucidate gene expression profile differences of the PIWI protein family between adult females and their midguts. A deep sequencing-based method was used to identify and analyze small non-coding RNAs, especially the piRNA profiles in DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut. The top-ranked, differentially-expressed piRNAs were further validated using Stem-loop qRT-PCR. Bioinformatics analyses and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) methods were used to detect PIWI protein family members, and their expression profiles. DENV-2 derived piRNAs (vpiRNA, 24–30 nts) were observed in both infected Ae. albopictus and its midgut; however, only vpiRNA in the whole-body library had a weak preference for adenine at position 10 (10A) in the sense molecules as a feature of secondary piRNA. These vpiRNAs were not equally distributed, instead they were derived from a few specific regions of the genome, especially several hot spots, and displayed an obvious positive strand bias. We refer to the differentially expressed host piRNAs after DENV infection as virus-induced host endogenous piRNAs (vepiRNAs). However, we found that vepiRNAs were abundant in mosquito whole-body tissue, but deficient in the midgut. A total of eleven PIWI family genes were identified in Ae. albopictus; however, only AalPiwi5–7 and AalAgo3(1–2) were readily detected in the midgut. The characteristics of piRNAs in DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus adult females were similar to those previously described for flavivirus infections but were not observed in the midgut. The reduced levels of vepiRNAs and incomplete expression of PIWI pathway genes in midgut samples from DENV-2-infected Ae. albopictus suggests that viral regulation of host piRNAs may not be an important factor in the midgut. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Defense in Invertebrates)
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Open AccessArticle Does BCA3 Play a Role in the HIV-1 Replication Cycle?
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040212
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
The cellular role of breast carcinoma-associated protein (BCA3), also known as A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP-1), is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that full-length, but not C-terminally truncated, BCA3 is incorporated into virions of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and that BCA3 enhances HIV-1 protease-induced
[...] Read more.
The cellular role of breast carcinoma-associated protein (BCA3), also known as A-kinase-interacting protein 1 (AKIP-1), is not fully understood. Recently, we reported that full-length, but not C-terminally truncated, BCA3 is incorporated into virions of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, and that BCA3 enhances HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we report that BCA3 is associated with purified and subtilisin-treated HIV particles. Using a combination of immune-based methods and confocal microscopy, we show that the C-terminus of BCA3 is required for packaging into HIV-1 particles. However, we were unable to identify an HIV-1 binding domain for BCA3, and we did not observe any effect of incorporated BCA3 on HIV-1 infectivity. Interestingly, the BCA3 C-terminus was previously identified as a binding site for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), a cellular protein that is specifically packaged into HIV-1 particles. Based on our analysis of PKAc–BCA3 interactions, we suggest that BCA3 incorporation into HIV-1 particles is mediated by its ability to interact with PKAc. Full article
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Open AccessReview Gemcitabine and Nucleos(t)ide Synthesis Inhibitors Are Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs that Activate Innate Immunity
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040211
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Nucleoside analogs have been frequently identified as antiviral agents. In recent years, gemcitabine, a cytidine analog in clinical use for the treatment of many solid tumors, was also shown to have antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses. Nucleoside analogs generally interfere
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Nucleoside analogs have been frequently identified as antiviral agents. In recent years, gemcitabine, a cytidine analog in clinical use for the treatment of many solid tumors, was also shown to have antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses. Nucleoside analogs generally interfere with cellular nucleos(t)ide synthesis pathways, resulting in the depletion or imbalance of (d)NTP pools. Intriguingly, a few recent reports have shown that some nucleoside analogs, including gemcitabine, activated innate immunity, inducing the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, through nucleos(t)ide synthesis inhibition. The precise crosstalk between these two independent processes remains to be determined. Nonetheless, we summarize the current knowledge of nucleos(t)ide synthesis inhibition-related innate immunity and propose it as a newly emerging antiviral mechanism of nucleoside analogs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040210
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were
[...] Read more.
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4+ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection. In this study, we reinforced previous observations that prior exposure to an apathogenic lentivirus infection can diminish the effects of acute infection with a second, more virulent, viral exposure. In addition, we investigated whether the viral load differences that were observed between PLV/FIV and FIV infected cats were associated with different immunocyte phenotypes and cytokines. We found that the immune landscape at the time of FIV infection influences the infection outcome. The novel findings in this study advance our knowledge about early immune correlates and documents an immune state that is associated with PLV/FIV co-infection that has positive outcomes for lentiviral diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
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Open AccessComment Phages Make for Jolly Good Stories
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040209
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Phage therapy has an intriguing history. It was widely used from the 1920s until the 1940s. After this period, it was nearly completely forgotten in the Western world, while it continued to be used in the Soviet part of the globe. The study
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Phage therapy has an intriguing history. It was widely used from the 1920s until the 1940s. After this period, it was nearly completely forgotten in the Western world, while it continued to be used in the Soviet part of the globe. The study of the history of phage therapy provides valuable input into the present development of the field. Science journalists uncovered much of this history and played an important role in the communication of phage therapy after the fall of the Soviet Union, when it came to the attention of Western researchers and doctors. This interest was fueled by the antibiotic resistance crisis. At this time, communication about phage therapy had a wide potential audience, that encompassed medical experts and researchers, as well as the public, because knowledge about this forgotten therapy was very limited. In such a situation, good communication had and still has the potential to catalyze important discussions among different groups; whereas, bad communication could have considerably hindered and still can hinder the possible renaissance of phage therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
Open AccessArticle Cytoplasmic Translocation of Nucleolar Protein NOP53 Promotes Viral Replication by Suppressing Host Defense
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040208
Received: 3 April 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible
[...] Read more.
NOP53 is a tumor suppressor protein located in the nucleolus and is translocated to the cytoplasm during infection by vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), as shown in our previous study. Cytoplasmic NOP53 interacts with the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) to remove its K63-linked ubiquitination, leading to attenuation of type I interferon IFN-β. In the present study, we found no obvious translocation of NOP53 in infection by a mutant virus lacking ICP4 (HSV-1/d120, replication inadequate). Blocking cytoplasmic translocation of NOP53 by the deletion of its nuclear export sequence (NES) abrogated its ability to support viral replication. These results demonstrated that NOP53 redistribution is related to viral replication. It is interesting that treatment with poly (I:C) or RIG-I-N (a constitutively-active variant) directly induced NOP53 cytoplasmic translocation. To better assess the function of cytoplasmic NOP53 in viral replication, the NOP53-derived protein N3-T, which contains a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-derived cell-penetrating Tat peptide at the C-terminal region of N3 (residues 330–432), was constructed and expressed. The recombinant N3-T protein formed trimers, attenuated the expression of IFN-β and IFN-stimulated genes, as well as decreased the phosphorylation level of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Furthermore, N3-T promoted the efficient replication of enveloped and non-enveloped DNA and RNA viruses belonging to 5 families. Our findings expand the understanding of the mechanism by which viruses utilize the nucleolar protein NOP53 for optimal viral replication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CD81 Receptor Regions outside the Large Extracellular Loop Determine Hepatitis C Virus Entry into Hepatoma Cells
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040207
Received: 18 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes using four essential entry factors, one of which is human CD81 (hCD81). The tetraspanin hCD81 contains a large extracellular loop (LEL), which interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. The role of the non-LEL regions of
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters human hepatocytes using four essential entry factors, one of which is human CD81 (hCD81). The tetraspanin hCD81 contains a large extracellular loop (LEL), which interacts with the E2 glycoprotein of HCV. The role of the non-LEL regions of hCD81 (intracellular tails, four transmembrane domains, small extracellular loop and intracellular loop) is poorly understood. Here, we studied the contribution of these domains to HCV susceptibility of hepatoma cells by generating chimeras of related tetraspanins with the hCD81 LEL. Our results show that non-LEL regions in addition to the LEL determine susceptibility of cells to HCV. While closely related tetraspanins (X. tropicalis CD81 and D. rerio CD81) functionally complement hCD81 non-LEL regions, distantly related tetraspanins (C. elegans TSP9 amd D. melanogaster TSP96F) do not and tetraspanins with intermediate homology (hCD9) show an intermediate phenotype. Tetraspanin homology and susceptibility to HCV correlate positively. For some chimeras, infectivity correlates with surface expression. In contrast, the hCD9 chimera is fully surface expressed, binds HCV E2 glycoprotein but is impaired in HCV receptor function. We demonstrate that a cholesterol-coordinating glutamate residue in CD81, which hCD9 lacks, promotes HCV infection. This work highlights the hCD81 non-LEL regions as additional HCV susceptibility-determining factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Applications of the FIV Model to Study HIV Pathogenesis
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040206
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
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Abstract
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard
[...] Read more.
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction. This review summarizes current knowledge of FIV infection kinetics and the mechanisms of immune dysfunction in relation to opportunistic disease, specifically in regard to studying HIV pathogenesis. Furthermore, we present data that highlight changes in the oral microbiota and oral immune system during FIV infection, and outline the potential for the feline model of oral AIDS manifestations to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-induced oral disease. Finally, we discuss advances in molecular biology, vaccine development, neurologic dysfunction, and the ability to apply pharmacologic interventions and sophisticated imaging technologies to study experimental and naturally occurring FIV, which provide an excellent, but often overlooked, resource for advancing therapies and the management of HIV/AIDS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
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Open AccessReview Bacteriophage Applications for Food Production and Processing
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040205
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to
[...] Read more.
Foodborne illnesses remain a major cause of hospitalization and death worldwide despite many advances in food sanitation techniques and pathogen surveillance. Traditional antimicrobial methods, such as pasteurization, high pressure processing, irradiation, and chemical disinfectants are capable of reducing microbial populations in foods to varying degrees, but they also have considerable drawbacks, such as a large initial investment, potential damage to processing equipment due to their corrosive nature, and a deleterious impact on organoleptic qualities (and possibly the nutritional value) of foods. Perhaps most importantly, these decontamination strategies kill indiscriminately, including many—often beneficial—bacteria that are naturally present in foods. One promising technique that addresses several of these shortcomings is bacteriophage biocontrol, a green and natural method that uses lytic bacteriophages isolated from the environment to specifically target pathogenic bacteria and eliminate them from (or significantly reduce their levels in) foods. Since the initial conception of using bacteriophages on foods, a substantial number of research reports have described the use of bacteriophage biocontrol to target a variety of bacterial pathogens in various foods, ranging from ready-to-eat deli meats to fresh fruits and vegetables, and the number of commercially available products containing bacteriophages approved for use in food safety applications has also been steadily increasing. Though some challenges remain, bacteriophage biocontrol is increasingly recognized as an attractive modality in our arsenal of tools for safely and naturally eliminating pathogenic bacteria from foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hurdles for Phage Therapy (PT) to Become a Reality)
Open AccessArticle Variability Studies of Two Prunus-Infecting Fabaviruses with the Aid of High-Throughput Sequencing
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040204
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing,
[...] Read more.
During their lifetime, perennial woody plants are expected to face multiple infection events. Furthermore, multiple genotypes of individual virus species may co-infect the same host. This may eventually lead to a situation where plants harbor complex communities of viral species/strains. Using high-throughput sequencing, we describe co-infection of sweet and sour cherry trees with diverse genomic variants of two closely related viruses, namely prunus virus F (PrVF) and cherry virus F (CVF). Both viruses are most homologous to members of the Fabavirus genus (Secoviridae family). The comparison of CVF and PrVF RNA2 genomic sequences suggests that the two viruses may significantly differ in their expression strategy. Indeed, similar to comoviruses, the smaller genomic segment of PrVF, RNA2, may be translated in two collinear proteins while CVF likely expresses only the shorter of these two proteins. Linked with the observation that identity levels between the coat proteins of these two viruses are significantly below the family species demarcation cut-off, these findings support the idea that CVF and PrVF represent two separate Fabavirus species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fruit Tree Viruses and Viroids)
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Open AccessPerspective Remembering Jan Svoboda: A Personal Reflection
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040203
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
The Czech scientist Jan Svoboda was a pioneer of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). In the 1960s, before the discovery of reverse transcriptase, he demonstrated the long-term persistence of the viral genome in non-productive mammalian cells, and he supported the DNA provirus hypothesis of
[...] Read more.
The Czech scientist Jan Svoboda was a pioneer of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). In the 1960s, before the discovery of reverse transcriptase, he demonstrated the long-term persistence of the viral genome in non-productive mammalian cells, and he supported the DNA provirus hypothesis of Howard Temin. He showed how the virus can be rescued in the infectious form and elucidated the replication-competent nature of the Prague strain of RSV later used for the identification of the src oncogene. His studies straddled molecular oncology and virology, and he remained an active contributor to the field until his death last year. Throughout the 50 years that I was privileged to know Svoboda as my mentor and friend, I admired his depth of scientific inquiry and his steadfast integrity in the face of political oppression. Full article
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Open AccessReview Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040202
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding
[...] Read more.
Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections. We discuss advantages and opportunities of confocal and multi-photon microscopy, selective plane illumination microscopy, and super-resolution microscopy. We emphasize the prevalent concepts in image processing and data analyses, and provide an outlook into label-free digital holographic microscopy for virus research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Advanced Imaging to the Study of Virus Replication)
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Open AccessArticle Inhibition of Rabies Virus by 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-Glucose Involves mTOR-Dependent Autophagy
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040201
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 4 April 2018 / Accepted: 14 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract
The compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG), a gallotannin present in various plants such as Rhus chinensis Mill and Paeonia suffruticosa, has a broad spectrum of antiviral effects. The present study investigated its potency against infection of mice with rabies virus
[...] Read more.
The compound 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose (PGG), a gallotannin present in various plants such as Rhus chinensis Mill and Paeonia suffruticosa, has a broad spectrum of antiviral effects. The present study investigated its potency against infection of mice with rabies virus (RABV). Results demonstrated that PGG strongly inhibited virus titers (50-fold), viral mRNA expression (up to 90%), and protein synthesis in vitro. Importantly, we found that PGG not only suppressed viral adsorption and entry, but also directly inactivated RABV through suppression of autophagy by mediating activation of the mTOR-dependent autophagy signaling pathway. In vivo, PGG (10 mg/kg) alleviated the clinical symptoms and reduced the mortality of infected mice by 27.3%. Collectively, our results indicate that PGG has potent anti-RABV effect, and merits further investigation as an anti-RABV drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)
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