Next Article in Journal
Remembering Jan Svoboda: A Personal Reflection
Next Article in Special Issue
Single Viruses on the Fluorescence Microscope: Imaging Molecular Mobility, Interactions and Structure Sheds New Light on Viral Replication
Previous Article in Journal
Inhibition of Rabies Virus by 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-Glucose Involves mTOR-Dependent Autophagy
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040202

Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses

1
Department of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2
MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 12 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Advanced Imaging to the Study of Virus Replication)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [936 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Viruses threaten humans, livestock, and plants, and are difficult to combat. Imaging of viruses by light microscopy is key to uncover the nature of known and emerging viruses in the quest for finding new ways to treat viral disease and deepening the understanding of virus–host interactions. Here, we provide an overview of recent technology for imaging cells and viruses by light microscopy, in particular fluorescence microscopy in static and live-cell modes. The review lays out guidelines for how novel fluorescent chemical probes and proteins can be used in light microscopy to illuminate cells, and how they can be used to study virus infections. We discuss advantages and opportunities of confocal and multi-photon microscopy, selective plane illumination microscopy, and super-resolution microscopy. We emphasize the prevalent concepts in image processing and data analyses, and provide an outlook into label-free digital holographic microscopy for virus research. View Full-Text
Keywords: light microscopy; fluorescence microscopy; immunofluorescence microscopy; virus labeling; super-resolution; live imaging; image analysis; data analysis; high-throughput screening, modeling; simulation; computing; quantitative microscopy; fluorescent virions; microscopy; trafficking; membrane traffic; intracellular transport; machine learning; virus infection; DNA virus; RNA virus; enveloped virus; nonenveloped virus; cell biology; virus entry; cytoskeleton; infection; receptor; internalization; innate immunity; virion uncoating; endocytosis; gene expression; gene therapy; adenovirus; herpesvirus; herpes simplex virus; influenza virus; hepatitis B virus; baculovirus; human immunodeficiency virus HIV; parvovirus; adeno-associated virus AAV; simian virus 40 light microscopy; fluorescence microscopy; immunofluorescence microscopy; virus labeling; super-resolution; live imaging; image analysis; data analysis; high-throughput screening, modeling; simulation; computing; quantitative microscopy; fluorescent virions; microscopy; trafficking; membrane traffic; intracellular transport; machine learning; virus infection; DNA virus; RNA virus; enveloped virus; nonenveloped virus; cell biology; virus entry; cytoskeleton; infection; receptor; internalization; innate immunity; virion uncoating; endocytosis; gene expression; gene therapy; adenovirus; herpesvirus; herpes simplex virus; influenza virus; hepatitis B virus; baculovirus; human immunodeficiency virus HIV; parvovirus; adeno-associated virus AAV; simian virus 40
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Witte, R.; Andriasyan, V.; Georgi, F.; Yakimovich, A.; Greber, U.F. Concepts in Light Microscopy of Viruses. Viruses 2018, 10, 202.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top