Next Article in Journal
Gemcitabine and Nucleos(t)ide Synthesis Inhibitors Are Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs that Activate Innate Immunity
Next Article in Special Issue
Epigenetic Modulation of CD8+ T Cell Function in Lentivirus Infections: A Review
Previous Article in Journal
Phages Make for Jolly Good Stories
Previous Article in Special Issue
Applications of the FIV Model to Study HIV Pathogenesis
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040210

Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats

1
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biological Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
2
Sprague Medical and Scientific Communications, LLC, Fort Collins, CO 80528, USA
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A5C1, Canada
4
The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
5
School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 12 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1926 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4+ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection. In this study, we reinforced previous observations that prior exposure to an apathogenic lentivirus infection can diminish the effects of acute infection with a second, more virulent, viral exposure. In addition, we investigated whether the viral load differences that were observed between PLV/FIV and FIV infected cats were associated with different immunocyte phenotypes and cytokines. We found that the immune landscape at the time of FIV infection influences the infection outcome. The novel findings in this study advance our knowledge about early immune correlates and documents an immune state that is associated with PLV/FIV co-infection that has positive outcomes for lentiviral diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV); puma lentivirus (PLV); innate immunology; CD8; FAS (death receptor; CD95) feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV); puma lentivirus (PLV); innate immunology; CD8; FAS (death receptor; CD95)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sprague, W.S.; Troyer, R.M.; Zheng, X.; Wood, B.A.; Macmillan, M.; Carver, S.; VandeWoude, S. Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats. Viruses 2018, 10, 210.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top