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Viruses 2018, 10(4), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040190

Counteracting Akt Activation by HIV Protease Inhibitors in Monocytes/Macrophages

1
Pathogens & Inflammation/EPILAB Laboratory, UPRES EA4266, University of Franche-Comté, COMUE Bourgogne Franche-Comté University, 25030 Besançon , France
2
Department of Virology, CHRU Besançon, 25030 Besançon, France
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

Akt signaling plays a central role in many biological processes that are key players in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis. The persistence of latent reservoirs in successfully treated patients, mainly located in macrophages and latently infected resting CD4+ T cells, remains a major obstacle in HIV-1 eradication. We assessed the in vitro effects of an HIV protease inhibitor (PI) and a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) on HIV-1 Nef-induced Akt activation in macrophages and on HIV-1 reactivation in U1 monocytoid cells. Ex vivo, we investigated the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on Akt activation, as measured by flow cytometry, and on the viral reservoir size, quantified by qPCR, in monocytes and autologous resting CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected individuals (Trial registration: NCT02858414). We found that, in myeloid cells, both Akt activation and HIV-1 reactivation were inhibited by PI but not by NNRTI in vitro. Our results indicate that cART decreases Akt activation and reduces the size of the HIV reservoir in both monocytes and resting CD4+ T cells. Our study indicates that Akt activation could play a role in HIV reservoir formation, indicating that drugs which target Akt could be efficient for limiting its size in aviremic chronically infected patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Akt; HIV-1; monocyte; resting CD4+ T cells; cART; protease inhibitor; NNRTI; reservoir Akt; HIV-1; monocyte; resting CD4+ T cells; cART; protease inhibitor; NNRTI; reservoir
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Pasquereau, S.; Kumar, A.; Abbas, W.; Herbein, G. Counteracting Akt Activation by HIV Protease Inhibitors in Monocytes/Macrophages. Viruses 2018, 10, 190.

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