Next Article in Journal
Does BCA3 Play a Role in the HIV-1 Replication Cycle?
Previous Article in Journal
Prior Puma Lentivirus Infection Modifies Early Immune Responses and Attenuates Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Cats
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040211

Gemcitabine and Nucleos(t)ide Synthesis Inhibitors Are Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs that Activate Innate Immunity

1
Center for Convergent Research of Emerging Virus Infection, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, 141 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 34114, Korea
2
Anticancer Agent Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience & Biotechnology, 30 Yeongudanji-ro, Ochang-eup, Cheongwon-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk 28116, Korea
3
Department of Biomolecular Science, KRIBB School of Bioscience, Korea University of Science and Technology, 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon-si 34113, Korea
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 20 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4288 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Nucleoside analogs have been frequently identified as antiviral agents. In recent years, gemcitabine, a cytidine analog in clinical use for the treatment of many solid tumors, was also shown to have antiviral activity against a broad range of viruses. Nucleoside analogs generally interfere with cellular nucleos(t)ide synthesis pathways, resulting in the depletion or imbalance of (d)NTP pools. Intriguingly, a few recent reports have shown that some nucleoside analogs, including gemcitabine, activated innate immunity, inducing the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, through nucleos(t)ide synthesis inhibition. The precise crosstalk between these two independent processes remains to be determined. Nonetheless, we summarize the current knowledge of nucleos(t)ide synthesis inhibition-related innate immunity and propose it as a newly emerging antiviral mechanism of nucleoside analogs. View Full-Text
Keywords: nucleoside analog; gemcitabine; antiviral drugs; innate immunity; interferon-stimulated gene; nucleos(t)ide synthesis nucleoside analog; gemcitabine; antiviral drugs; innate immunity; interferon-stimulated gene; nucleos(t)ide synthesis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shin, H.J.; Kim, C.; Cho, S. Gemcitabine and Nucleos(t)ide Synthesis Inhibitors Are Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Drugs that Activate Innate Immunity. Viruses 2018, 10, 211.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top