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Energies, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2015), Pages 7522-9008

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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8990-9008; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088990
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2259 | PDF Full-text (2945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor.
[...] Read more.
The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point) of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point) of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Laboratory-Scale Research on Upgrading Heavy Oil in Supercritical Water
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8962-8989; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088962
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2011 | PDF Full-text (1380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the growing demand for energy and the depletion of conventional crude oil, heavy oil in huge reserve has attracted extensive attention. However, heavy oil cannot be directly refined by existing processes unless they are upgraded due to its complex composition and high
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With the growing demand for energy and the depletion of conventional crude oil, heavy oil in huge reserve has attracted extensive attention. However, heavy oil cannot be directly refined by existing processes unless they are upgraded due to its complex composition and high concentration of heteroatoms (N, S, Ni, V, etc.). Of the variety of techniques for heavy oil upgrading, supercritical water (SCW) is gaining popularity because of its excellent ability to convert heavy oil into valued, clean light oil by the suppression of coke formation and the removal of heteroatoms. Based on the current status of this research around the world, heavy oil upgrading in SCW is summarized from three aspects: Transformation of hydrocarbons, suppression of coke, and removal of heteroatoms. In this work, the challenge and future development of the orientation of upgrading heavy oil in SCW are pointed out. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CFD Analysis of Regenerative Chambers for Energy Efficiency Improvement in Glass Production Plants
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8945-8961; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088945
Received: 8 May 2015 / Revised: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1922 | PDF Full-text (3632 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The overall efficiency of a regenerative chamber for a glass furnace mainly relies on the thermo-fluid dynamics of air and waste gas alternatively flowing through stacks of refractory bricks (checkers) determining the heat recovery. A numerical approach could effectively support the design strategies
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The overall efficiency of a regenerative chamber for a glass furnace mainly relies on the thermo-fluid dynamics of air and waste gas alternatively flowing through stacks of refractory bricks (checkers) determining the heat recovery. A numerical approach could effectively support the design strategies in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the current technology and hopefully suggest new perspectives of improvement. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) scheme for the regenerator is proposed, where the real geometry of the solid phase is modelled as a porous solid phase exchanging heat with the gas stream. Satisfactory data fitting proved the reliability of the present approach, whose applications are proposed in the last section of this study, to confirm how such a CFD modelling could be helpful in improving the overall energy efficiency of the regeneration chamber. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vibro-Impact Energy Analysis of a Geared System with Piecewise-Type Nonlinearities Using Various Parameter Values
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8924-8944; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088924
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1629 | PDF Full-text (3125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Torsional systems with gear pairs such as the gearbox of wind turbines or vehicle driveline systems inherently show impact phenomena due to clearance-type nonlinearities when the system experiences sinusoidal excitation. This research investigates the vibro-impact energy of unloaded gears in geared systems using
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Torsional systems with gear pairs such as the gearbox of wind turbines or vehicle driveline systems inherently show impact phenomena due to clearance-type nonlinearities when the system experiences sinusoidal excitation. This research investigates the vibro-impact energy of unloaded gears in geared systems using the harmonic balance method (HBM) in both the frequency and time domains. To achieve accurate simulations, nonlinear models with piecewise and clearance-type nonlinearities and drag torques are defined and implemented in the HBM. Next, the nonlinear frequency responses are examined by focusing on the resonance areas where the impact phenomena occur, along with variations in key parameters such as clutch stiffness, drag torque, and inertias of the flywheel and the unloaded gear. Finally, the effects of the parameters on the vibro-impacts at a specific excitation frequency are explained using bifurcation diagrams. The results are correlated with prior research by defining the gear rattle criteria with key parameters. This article suggests a method to simulate the impact phenomena in torsional systems using the HBM and successfully assesses vibro-impact energy using bifurcation diagrams. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Interval Type-II Fuzzy Rule-Based STATCOM for Voltage Regulation in the Power System
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8908-8923; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088908
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1584 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) has recently received much attention owing to its ability to stabilize power systems and mitigate voltage variations. This paper investigates a novel interval type-II fuzzy rule-based PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller for the STATCOM to mitigate bus voltage
[...] Read more.
The static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) has recently received much attention owing to its ability to stabilize power systems and mitigate voltage variations. This paper investigates a novel interval type-II fuzzy rule-based PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller for the STATCOM to mitigate bus voltage variations caused by large changes in load and the intermittent generation of photovoltaic (PV) arrays. The proposed interval type-II fuzzy rule base utilizes the output of the PID controller to tune the signal applied to the STATCOM. The rules involve upper and lower membership functions that ensure the stable responses of the controlled system. The proposed method is implemented using the NEPLAN software package and MATLAB/Simulink with co-simulation. A six-bus system is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Comparative studies show that the proposed method is superior to traditional PID and type-I fuzzy rule-based methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electric Power Systems Research) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Hydrogen-Based Storage Systems on Self-Consumption and Self-Sufficiency of Residential Photovoltaic Systems
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8887-8907; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088887
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2230 | PDF Full-text (2397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper analyzes the behavior of residential solar-powered electrical energy storage systems. For this purpose, a simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is developed. Investigating both short-time and seasonal hydrogen-based storage systems, simulations on the basis of real weather data are processed on a
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This paper analyzes the behavior of residential solar-powered electrical energy storage systems. For this purpose, a simulation model based on MATLAB/Simulink is developed. Investigating both short-time and seasonal hydrogen-based storage systems, simulations on the basis of real weather data are processed on a timescale of 15 min for a consideration period of 3 years. A sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to identify the most important system parameters concerning the proportion of consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency. Therefore, the influences of storage capacity and of storage efficiencies are discussed. A short-time storage system can increase the proportion of consumption by up to 35 percentage points compared to a self-consumption system without storage. However, the seasonal storing system uses almost the entire energy produced by the photovoltaic (PV) system (nearly 100% self-consumption). Thereby, the energy drawn from the grid can be reduced and a degree of self-sufficiency of about 90% is achieved. Based on these findings, some scenarios to reach self-sufficiency are analyzed. The results show that full self-sufficiency will be possible with a seasonal hydrogen-based storage system if PV area and initial storage level are appropriate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermal System Analysis and Optimization of Large-Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES)
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8873-8886; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088873
Received: 24 June 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2150 | PDF Full-text (862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES) power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination
[...] Read more.
As an important solution to issues regarding peak load and renewable energy resources on grids, large-scale compressed air energy storage (CAES) power generation technology has recently become a popular research topic in the area of large-scale industrial energy storage. At present, the combination of high-expansion ratio turbines with advanced gas turbine technology is an important breakthrough in energy storage technology. In this study, a new gas turbine power generation system is coupled with current CAES technology. Moreover, a thermodynamic cycle system is optimized by calculating for the parameters of a thermodynamic system. Results show that the thermal efficiency of the new system increases by at least 5% over that of the existing system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wave Tank Testing and Model Validation of an Autonomous Wave Energy Converter
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8857-8872; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088857
Received: 9 April 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1927 | PDF Full-text (2756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A key component in bringing ocean wave energy converters from concept to commercialization is the building and testing of scaled prototypes to provide model validation. A one quarter scale prototype of an autonomous two body heaving point absorber was modeled, built, and tested
[...] Read more.
A key component in bringing ocean wave energy converters from concept to commercialization is the building and testing of scaled prototypes to provide model validation. A one quarter scale prototype of an autonomous two body heaving point absorber was modeled, built, and tested for this work. Wave tank testing results are compared with two hydrodynamic and system models—implemented in both ANSYS AQWA and MATLAB/Simulink—and show model validation over certain regions of operation. This work will serve as a guide for future developers of wave energy converter devices, providing insight in taking their design from concept to prototype stage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exergetic Analysis of an Integrated Tri-Generation Organic Rankine Cycle
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8835-8856; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088835
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1796 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output) tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output
[...] Read more.
This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output) tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output of the system that comprised a parabolic trough collector (PTC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC), single-effect desalination (SED), and single effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (ACH) was electrical power, distilled water, and refrigerant load. The electrical power was produced by the ORC which used cyclopentane as working fluid and Therminol VP-1 was specified as the heat transfer oil (HTO) in the collectors with thermal storage. The absorption chiller and the desalination unit were utilize the waste heat exiting from the steam turbine in the ORC to provide the necessary cooling energy and drinking water respectively. The modelling, which includes an exergetic analysis, focuses on the performance of the solar tri-generation system. The simulation results of the tri-generation system and its subsystems were produced using IPSEpro software and were validated against experimental data which showed good agreement. The tri-generation system was able to produce about 194 Ton of refrigeration, and 234 t/day distilled water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tri-Generation Cycles, Combined Heat, Power and Cooling (CHPC))
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Open AccessArticle Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8814-8834; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088814
Received: 28 May 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 15 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 2633 | PDF Full-text (1760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much
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The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVM) to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN) with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN) is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS) errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of Model Predictive Control to BESS for Microgrid Control
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8798-8813; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088798
Received: 27 June 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 19 August 2015
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2700 | PDF Full-text (1052 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) have been widely used for microgrid control. Generally, BESS control systems are based on proportional-integral (PI) control techniques with the outer and inner control loops based on PI regulators. Recently, model predictive control (MPC) has attracted attention for
[...] Read more.
Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) have been widely used for microgrid control. Generally, BESS control systems are based on proportional-integral (PI) control techniques with the outer and inner control loops based on PI regulators. Recently, model predictive control (MPC) has attracted attention for application to future energy processing and control systems because it can easily deal with multivariable cases, system constraints, and nonlinearities. This study considers the application of MPC-based BESSs to microgrid control. Two types of MPC are presented in this study: MPC based on predictive power control (PPC) and MPC based on PI control in the outer and predictive current control (PCC) in the inner control loops. In particular, the effective application of MPC for microgrids with multiple BESSs should be considered because of the differences in their control performance. In this study, microgrids with two BESSs based on two MPC techniques are considered as an example. The control performance of the MPC used for the control microgrid is compared to that of the PI control. The proposed control strategy is investigated through simulations using MATLAB/Simulink software. The simulation results show that the response time, power and voltage ripples, and frequency spectrum could be improved significantly by using MPC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Control of Energy Storage) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Analysis of Unit Process Cost for an Engineering-Scale Pyroprocess Facility Using a Process Costing Method in Korea
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8775-8797; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088775
Received: 31 March 2015 / Revised: 3 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2634 | PDF Full-text (4984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium)/TRU (TRansUranium) metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing
[...] Read more.
Pyroprocessing, which is a dry recycling method, converts spent nuclear fuel into U (Uranium)/TRU (TRansUranium) metal ingots in a high-temperature molten salt phase. This paper provides the unit process cost of a pyroprocess facility that can process up to 10 tons of pyroprocessing product per year by utilizing the process costing method. Toward this end, the pyroprocess was classified into four kinds of unit processes: pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning. The unit process cost was calculated by classifying the cost consumed at each process into raw material and conversion costs. The unit process costs of the pretreatment, electrochemical reduction, electrorefining and electrowinning were calculated as 195 US$/kgU-TRU, 310 US$/kgU-TRU, 215 US$/kgU-TRU and 231 US$/kgU-TRU, respectively. Finally the total pyroprocess cost was calculated as 951 US$/kgU-TRU. In addition, the cost driver for the raw material cost was identified as the cost for Li3PO4, needed for the LiCl-KCl purification process, and platinum as an anode electrode in the electrochemical reduction process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Future of Nuclear Power)
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Open AccessArticle Economic Impact Assessment of Wind Power Integration: A Quasi-Public Goods Property Perspective
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8749-8774; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088749
Received: 17 July 2015 / Revised: 29 July 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1942 | PDF Full-text (1162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integration of wind power into power grid will bring some impacts on the multiple subjects of electric power system. Economic impacts of wind power integration on multiple subjects of China’s electric power system were quantitatively assessed from Quasi-public goods property perspective in
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The integration of wind power into power grid will bring some impacts on the multiple subjects of electric power system. Economic impacts of wind power integration on multiple subjects of China’s electric power system were quantitatively assessed from Quasi-public goods property perspective in this paper. Firstly, the Quasi-public goods property of transmission services provided by power grid corporations was elaborated. Secondly, the multiple subjects of China’s electric power system, which include electricity generation enterprises (EGEs), power grid corporations (PGCs), electricity consumers (ECs), and environment, were detailed analyzed. Thirdly, based on the OPF-based nodal price model and transmission service cost allocation model, the economic impact assessment model of wind power integration was built from Quasi-public goods property perspective. Then, the IEEE-24 bus system employed in this paper was introduced according to current status of China’s electric power system, and the modeling of wind turbine was also introduced. Finally, the simulation analysis was performed, and the economic impacts of wind power integration on EGEs, PGCs, ECs and Environment were calculated. The results indicate, from Quasi-public goods property perspective, the wind power integration will bring positive impacts on EGEs, PGCs and Environment, while negative impacts on ECs. The findings can provide references for power system managers, energy planners, and policy makers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2015)
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Open AccessArticle Synergetic Effect between Lighting Efficiency Enhancement and Building Energy Reduction Using Alternative Thermal Operating System of Indoor LED Lighting
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8736-8748; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088736
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1932 | PDF Full-text (1806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED) lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS) of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device.
[...] Read more.
We investigated the synergetic effect between light-emitting diode (LED) lighting efficiency and building energy savings in heating and cooling using an alternative thermal operating system (ATOS) of indoor LED lighting integrated with the ventilation system of a building as an active cooling device. The heat generated from LED lighting and the indoor lighting illuminance were experimentally determined. The indoor heat gains in cooling and heating periods were determined using measurement data; the annual energy savings of an office building in heating and cooling were calculated through simulation. The LED lighting illuminance increased by approximately 40% and the lighting contribution for indoor heat gain was 7.8% in summer, while 69.8% in winter with the ATOS. Consequently, the annual total energy use of the office building could be reduced by 5.9%; the energy use in cooling and heating was reduced by 18.4% and 3.3%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Conservation in Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Communication Network Architectures for Smart-House with Renewable Energy Resources
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8716-8735; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088716
Received: 16 June 2015 / Revised: 20 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2904 | PDF Full-text (1636 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the microgrid revolution, each house will have the ability to meet its own energy needs locally from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. However, real-time data gathering, energy management and control of renewable energy systems will depend mainly on the
[...] Read more.
With the microgrid revolution, each house will have the ability to meet its own energy needs locally from renewable energy sources such as solar or wind. However, real-time data gathering, energy management and control of renewable energy systems will depend mainly on the performance of the communications infrastructure. This paper describes the design of a communication network architecture using both wired and wireless technologies for monitoring and controlling distributed energy systems involving small-scale wind turbines and photovoltaic systems. The proposed communication architecture consists of three layers: device layer, network layer, and application layer. Two scenarios are considered: a smart-house and a smart-building. Various types of sensor nodes and measurement devices are defined to monitor the condition of the renewable energy systems based on the international electrotechnical commission standard. The OPNET Modeler is used for performance evaluation in terms of end-to-end (ETE) delay. The network performance is compared in view of ETE delay, reliability and implementation cost for three different technologies: Ethernet-based, WiFi-based, and ZigBee-based. Full article
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Open AccessArticle CO2 Fixation by Membrane Separated NaCl Electrolysis
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8704-8715; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088704
Received: 10 June 2015 / Accepted: 10 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2440 | PDF Full-text (1661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major cause of global warming, have been rising due to industrial development. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is regarded as the most effective way to reduce such atmospheric CO2 concentrations, has several environmental and technical
[...] Read more.
Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major cause of global warming, have been rising due to industrial development. Carbon capture and storage (CCS), which is regarded as the most effective way to reduce such atmospheric CO2 concentrations, has several environmental and technical disadvantages. Carbon capture and utilization (CCU), which has been introduced to cover such disadvantages, makes it possible to capture CO2, recycling byproducts as resources. However, CCU also requires large amounts of energy in order to induce reactions. Among existing CCU technologies, the process for converting CO2 into CaCO3 requires high temperature and high pressure as reaction conditions. This study proposes a method to fixate CaCO3 stably by using relatively less energy than existing methods. After forming NaOH absorbent solution through electrolysis of NaCl in seawater, CaCO3 was precipitated at room temperature and pressure. Following the experiment, the resulting product CaCO3 was analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR); field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) image and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were also analyzed. The results showed that the CaCO3 crystal product was high-purity calcite. The study shows a successful method for fixating CO2 by reducing carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere while forming high-purity CaCO3. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wind Resource Mapping Using Landscape Roughness and Spatial Interpolation Methods
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8682-8703; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088682
Received: 13 May 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2174 | PDF Full-text (6781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy saving, reduction of greenhouse gasses and increased use of renewables are key policies to achieve the European 2020 targets. In particular, distributed renewable energy sources, integrated with spatial planning, require novel methods to optimise supply and demand. In contrast with large scale
[...] Read more.
Energy saving, reduction of greenhouse gasses and increased use of renewables are key policies to achieve the European 2020 targets. In particular, distributed renewable energy sources, integrated with spatial planning, require novel methods to optimise supply and demand. In contrast with large scale wind turbines, small and medium wind turbines (SMWTs) have a less extensive impact on the use of space and the power system, nevertheless, a significant spatial footprint is still present and the need for good spatial planning is a necessity. To optimise the location of SMWTs, detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution of the average wind speed is essential, hence, in this article, wind measurements and roughness maps were used to create a reliable annual mean wind speed map of Flanders at 10 m above the Earth’s surface. Via roughness transformation, the surface wind speed measurements were converted into meso- and macroscale wind data. The data were further processed by using seven different spatial interpolation methods in order to develop regional wind resource maps. Based on statistical analysis, it was found that the transformation into mesoscale wind, in combination with Simple Kriging, was the most adequate method to create reliable maps for decision-making on optimal production sites for SMWTs in Flanders (Belgium). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Policy and Climate Change) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8650-8681; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088650
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2328 | PDF Full-text (1088 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as air conditioners (ACs), are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load
[...] Read more.
Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as air conditioners (ACs), are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Efficiency Indicators for Assessing Construction Systems Storing Renewable Energy: Application to Phase Change Material-Bearing Façades
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8630-8649; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088630
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 1 August 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2316 | PDF Full-text (1231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assessing the performance or energy efficiency of a single construction element by itself is often a futile exercise. That is not the case, however, when an element is designed, among others, to improve building energy performance by harnessing renewable energy in a process
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Assessing the performance or energy efficiency of a single construction element by itself is often a futile exercise. That is not the case, however, when an element is designed, among others, to improve building energy performance by harnessing renewable energy in a process that requires a source of external energy. Harnessing renewable energy is acquiring growing interest in Mediterranean climates as a strategy for reducing the energy consumed by buildings. When such reduction is oriented to lowering demand, the strategy consists in reducing the building’s energy needs with the use of construction elements able to passively absorb, dissipate, or accumulate energy. When reduction is pursued through M&E services, renewable energy enhances building performance. The efficiency of construction systems that use renewable energy but require a supplementary power supply to operate can be assessed by likening these systems to regenerative heat exchangers built into the building. The indicators needed for this purpose are particularly useful for designers, for they can be used to compare the efficiency or performance to deliver an optimal design for each building. This article proposes a series of indicators developed to that end and describes their application to façades bearing phase change materials (PCMs). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Conservation in Infrastructures)
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Open AccessArticle Investigation of the Promotion of Wind Power Consumption Using the Thermal-Electric Decoupling Techniques
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8613-8629; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088613
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 5 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 13 August 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1755 | PDF Full-text (668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the provinces of north China, combined heat and electric power generations (CHP) are widely utilized to provide both heating source and electricity. While, due to the constraint of thermal-electric coupling within CHP, a mass of wind turbines have to offline operate during
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In the provinces of north China, combined heat and electric power generations (CHP) are widely utilized to provide both heating source and electricity. While, due to the constraint of thermal-electric coupling within CHP, a mass of wind turbines have to offline operate during heating season to maintain the power grid stability. This paper proposes a thermal-electric decoupling (TED) approach to release the energy waste. Within the thermal-electric decoupling system, heat storage and electric boiler/heat pump are introduced to provide an auxiliary thermal source during hard peak shaving period, thus relying on the participation of an outside heat source, the artificial electric power output change interval could be widened to adopt more wind power and reduce wind power curtailment. Both mathematic models and methods are proposed to calculate the evaluation indexes to weight the effect of TED, by using the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Numerical simulations have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods, and the results show that the proposed approach could relieve up to approximately 90% of wind power curtailment and the ability of power system to accommodate wind power could be promoted about 32%; moreover, the heating source is extended, about 300 GJ heat could be supplied by TED during the whole heating season, which accounts for about 18% of the total heat need. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting)
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Open AccessArticle A Real-Time Joint Estimator for Model Parameters and State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8594-8612; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088594
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 4 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2613 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1) In view of the model-based SoC
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Accurate state of charge (SoC) estimation of batteries plays an important role in promoting the commercialization of electric vehicles. The main work to be done in accurately determining battery SoC can be summarized in three parts. (1) In view of the model-based SoC estimation flow diagram, the n-order resistance-capacitance (RC) battery model is proposed and expected to accurately simulate the battery’s major time-variable, nonlinear characteristics. Then, the mathematical equations for model parameter identification and SoC estimation of this model are constructed. (2) The Akaike information criterion is used to determine an optimal tradeoff between battery model complexity and prediction precision for the n-order RC battery model. Results from a comparative analysis show that the first-order RC battery model is thought to be the best based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC) values. (3) The real-time joint estimator for the model parameter and SoC is constructed, and the application based on two battery types indicates that the proposed SoC estimator is a closed-loop identification system where the model parameter identification and SoC estimation are corrected mutually, adaptively and simultaneously according to the observer values. The maximum SoC estimation error is less than 1% for both battery types, even against the inaccurate initial SoC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Consumption Prediction for Electric Vehicles Based on Real-World Data
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8573-8593; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088573
Received: 30 April 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2789 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption is variable and dependent on a number of external factors such as road topology, traffic, driving style, ambient temperature, etc. The goal of this paper is to detect and quantify correlations between the kinematic parameters of the vehicle
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Electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption is variable and dependent on a number of external factors such as road topology, traffic, driving style, ambient temperature, etc. The goal of this paper is to detect and quantify correlations between the kinematic parameters of the vehicle and its energy consumption. Real-world data of EV energy consumption are used to construct the energy consumption calculation models. Based on the vehicle dynamics equation as underlying physical model, multiple linear regression is used to construct three models. Each model uses a different level of aggregation of the input parameters, allowing predictions using different types of available input parameters. One model uses aggregated values of the kinematic parameters of trips. This model allows prediction with basic, easily available input parameters such as travel distance, travel time, and temperature. The second model extends this by including detailed acceleration data. The third model uses the raw data of the kinematic parameters as input parameters to predict the energy consumption. Using detailed values of kinematic parameters for the prediction in theory increases the link between the statistical model and its underlying physical principles, but requires these parameters to be available as input in order to make predictions. The first two models show similar results. The third model shows a worse fit than the first two, but has a similar accuracy. This model has great potential for future improvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Gasification of a Dried Sewage Sludge in a Laboratory Scale Fixed Bed Reactor
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8562-8572; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088562
Received: 17 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1503 | PDF Full-text (609 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an investigation of sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale fixed bed gasifier. In the experiments, two types of dried sewage sludge were tested and their properties were analysed. Parameters such as
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This paper presents an investigation of sewage sludge gasification in a fixed bed gasifier. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory scale fixed bed gasifier. In the experiments, two types of dried sewage sludge were tested and their properties were analysed. Parameters such as air ratio λ = 0.12 to 0.27, gasification agent temperature t = 50 to 250 °C and gasification agent composition ( = 0.21 and > 0.21) were found to influence on temperature distribution, syngas Lower Heating Value (LHV) and syngas composition. The results indicate that the syngas LHV was found to decrease with increased air ratio for all analyzed cases: cold and preheated air and cold enriched air. The increase in the percentage of the main combustible components was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of carbon dioxide. Increasing oxygen concentration increased the temperature, which tended to favor the formation of smaller molecules in the gas mixture. Thus, the enriched air medium produced a gas with a higher LHV. In contrast to conventional gasification, gasification process with gasification agent preheating causes that the flux of heat necessary to support endothermic gasification reactions is producing more effective. Air preheating causes increases hydrogen and carbon monoxide production. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Torque Distribution Algorithm for an Independently Driven Electric Vehicle Using a Fuzzy Control Method
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8537-8561; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088537
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2770 | PDF Full-text (1616 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The in-wheel electric vehicle is expected to be a popular next-generation vehicle because an in-wheel system can simplify the powertrain and improve driving performance. In addition, it also has an advantage in that it maximizes driving efficiency through independent torque control considering the
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The in-wheel electric vehicle is expected to be a popular next-generation vehicle because an in-wheel system can simplify the powertrain and improve driving performance. In addition, it also has an advantage in that it maximizes driving efficiency through independent torque control considering the motor efficiency. However, there is an instability problem if only the driving torque is controlled in consideration of only the motor efficiency. In this paper, integrated torque distribution strategies are proposed to overcome these problems. The control algorithm consists of various strategies for optimizing driving efficiency, satisfying driver demands, and considering tire slip and vehicle cornering. Fuzzy logic is used to determine the appropriate timing of intervention for each distribution strategy. A performance simulator for in-wheel electric vehicles was developed by using MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim to validate the control strategies. From simulation results under complex driving conditions, the proposed algorithm was verified to improve both the driving stability and fuel economy of the in-wheel vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles and Hybrid Vehicles)
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Open AccessArticle An Iterative Method to Derive the Equivalent Centrifugal Compressor Performance at Various Operating Conditions: Part II: Modeling of Gas Properties Impact
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8516-8536; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088516
Received: 4 July 2015 / Revised: 5 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1759 | PDF Full-text (4984 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This is the second part of a study conducted to model the aerothermodynamic impact of suction parameters and gas properties on a multi-stage centrifugal compressor’s performance. A new iterative method has been developed in the first part to derive the equivalent performance at
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This is the second part of a study conducted to model the aerothermodynamic impact of suction parameters and gas properties on a multi-stage centrifugal compressor’s performance. A new iterative method has been developed in the first part to derive the equivalent performance at various operating conditions. This approach has been validated to predict the compressor map at different suction pressures and temperatures using the design characteristics as reference values. A further case is included in this paper in order to emphasize the validity of the developed approach to obtain the performance characteristics at various gas compositions. The provided example shows that the performance parameters at different gas mixtures can be predicted to within ±1.34%. Furthermore, the conducted optimization in this paper reveals that the proposed method can be applied for the compressor design evaluation corresponding to the expected variation in suction conditions. Moreover, the examined case study demonstrates the effect of gas properties’ variation on the operating point and aerodynamic stability of the entire compression system. In order to achieve that, a simple approach has been established to assess the contribution of gas properties’ variation to the inefficient and unstable compressor performance based on the available operational data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Iterative Method to Derive the Equivalent Centrifugal Compressor Performance at Various Operating Conditions: Part I: Modelling of Suction Parameters Impact
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8497-8515; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088497
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 4 August 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1747 | PDF Full-text (2344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces a new iterative method to predict the equivalent centrifugal compressor performance at various operating conditions. The presented theoretical analysis and empirical correlations provide a novel approach to derive the entire compressor map corresponding to various suction conditions without a prior
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This paper introduces a new iterative method to predict the equivalent centrifugal compressor performance at various operating conditions. The presented theoretical analysis and empirical correlations provide a novel approach to derive the entire compressor map corresponding to various suction conditions without a prior knowledge of the detailed geometry. The efficiency model was derived to reflect the impact of physical gas properties, Mach number, and flow and work coefficients. One of the main features of the developed technique is the fact that it considers the variation in the gas properties and stage efficiency which makes it appropriate with hydrocarbons. This method has been tested to predict the performance of two multistage centrifugal compressors and the estimated characteristics are compared with the measured data. The carried comparison revealed a good matching with the actual values, including the stable operation region limits. Furthermore, an optimization study was conducted to investigate the influences of suction conditions on the stage efficiency and surge margin. Moreover, a new sort of presentation has been generated to obtain the equivalent performance characteristics for a constant discharge pressure operation at variable suction pressure and temperature working conditions. A further validation is included in part two of this study in order to evaluate the prediction capability of the derived model at various gas compositions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Measurements of the Aerodynamic Normal Forces on a 12-kW Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8482-8496; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088482
Received: 5 June 2015 / Revised: 27 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 12 August 2015
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2196 | PDF Full-text (974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The knowledge of unsteady forces is necessary when designing vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). Measurement data for turbines operating at an open site are still very limited. The data obtained from wind tunnels or towing tanks can be used, but have limited applicability
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The knowledge of unsteady forces is necessary when designing vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). Measurement data for turbines operating at an open site are still very limited. The data obtained from wind tunnels or towing tanks can be used, but have limited applicability when designing large-scale VAWTs. This study presents experimental data on the normal forces of a 12-kW straight-bladed VAWT operated at an open site north of Uppsala, Sweden. The normal forces are measured with four single-axis load cells. The data are obtained for a wide range of tip speed ratios: from 1.7 to 4.6. The behavior of the normal forces is analyzed. The presented data can be used in validations of aerodynamic models and the mechanical design for VAWTs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle On-Board State-of-Health Estimation at a Wide Ambient Temperature Range in Lithium-Ion Batteries
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8467-8481; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088467
Received: 18 June 2015 / Revised: 16 July 2015 / Accepted: 3 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
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Abstract
A state-of-health (SOH) estimation method for electric vehicles (EVs) is presented with three main advantages: (1) it provides joint estimation of cell’s aging states in terms of power and energy (i.e., SOHP and SOHE)—because the determination of SOH
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A state-of-health (SOH) estimation method for electric vehicles (EVs) is presented with three main advantages: (1) it provides joint estimation of cell’s aging states in terms of power and energy (i.e., SOHP and SOHE)—because the determination of SOHP and SOHE can be reduced to the estimation of the ohmic resistance increase and capacity loss, respectively, the ohmic resistance at nominal temperature will be taken as a health indicator, and the capacity loss is estimated based on a mechanistic model that is developed to describe the correlation between resistance increase and capacity loss; (2) it has wide applicability to various ambient temperatures—to eliminate the effects of temperature on the resistance, another mechanistic model about the resistance against temperature is presented, which can normalize the resistance at various temperatures to its standard value at the nominal temperature; and (3) it needs low computational efforts for on-board application—based on a linear equation of cell’s dynamic behaviors, the recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm is used for the resistance estimation. Based on the designed performance and validation experiments, respectively, the coefficients of the models are determined and the accuracy of the proposed method is verified. The results at different aging states and temperatures show good accuracy and reliability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Domestic Hot Water Production with Ground Source Heat Pump in Apartment Buildings
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8447-8466; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088447
Received: 27 May 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 5 August 2015 / Published: 11 August 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2170 | PDF Full-text (1765 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Producing domestic hot water (DHW) with a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is challenging due to the high temperature (HT) of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between
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Producing domestic hot water (DHW) with a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is challenging due to the high temperature (HT) of DHW. There are many studies proving the better performance of cascade heat pumps compared to single-stage heat pumps when the difference between the condensing and the evaporation temperature is large. In this system approach study, different GSHP arrangements are described and computationally compared. A two-stage heat pump arrangement is introduced in which water tanks of the heating system are utilized for warming up the DHW in two stages. It is shown that the electricity consumption with this two-stage system is approximately 31% less than with the single-stage heat pump and 12% less than with the cascade system. Further, both low temperature (LT) and HT heat pumps can run alone, which is not common in cascade or other two-stage heat pumps. This is advantageous because the high loads of the space heating and DHW production are not simultaneous. Proper insulation of the DHW and recirculation pipe network is essential, and drying towel rails or other heating coils should be avoided when aiming for a high efficiency. The refrigerants in the calculations are R407C for the LT heat pump and R134a for the HT heat pump. Investment costs are excluded from calculations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Adsorbent Composite Material Based on Metal Fiber Technology and Its Application in Adsorption Heat Exchangers
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8431-8446; https://doi.org/10.3390/en8088431
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 28 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 10 August 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2203 | PDF Full-text (843 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to achieve process intensification for adsorption chillers and heat pumps, a new composite material was developed based on sintered aluminum fibers from a melt-extraction process and a dense layer of silico-aluminophosphate (SAPO-34) on the fiber surfaces. The SAPO-34 layer was obtained
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In order to achieve process intensification for adsorption chillers and heat pumps, a new composite material was developed based on sintered aluminum fibers from a melt-extraction process and a dense layer of silico-aluminophosphate (SAPO-34) on the fiber surfaces. The SAPO-34 layer was obtained through a partial support transformation (PST) process. Preparation of a composite sample is described and its characteristic pore size distribution and heat conductivity are presented. Water adsorption data obtained under conditions of a large pressure jump are given. In the next step, preparation of the composite was scaled up to larger samples which were fixed on a small adsorption heat exchanger. Adsorption measurements on this heat exchanger element that confirm the achieved process intensification are presented. The specific cooling power for the adsorption step per volume of composite is found to exceed 500 kW/m3 under specified conditions. Full article
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