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Energies 2015, 8(8), 8650-8681; doi:10.3390/en8088650

A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

1,* , 1,†
,
2,†
,
3,†
and
1,†
1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
2
China Electric Power Research Institute, Nanjing 210003, China
3
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thorsten Staake
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Metering)

Abstract

Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as air conditioners (ACs), are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level. View Full-Text
Keywords: demand response; thermostatically controlled loads; air conditioning; closed-loop control; peak load shifting demand response; thermostatically controlled loads; air conditioning; closed-loop control; peak load shifting
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, X.; Wang, B.; Yang, S.; Short, T.; Zhou, L. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response. Energies 2015, 8, 8650-8681.

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