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Energies 2015, 8(8), 8962-8989; doi:10.3390/en8088962

A Review of Laboratory-Scale Research on Upgrading Heavy Oil in Supercritical Water

1
State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China 
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pierre Trambouze
Received: 26 May 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 24 August 2015
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Abstract

With the growing demand for energy and the depletion of conventional crude oil, heavy oil in huge reserve has attracted extensive attention. However, heavy oil cannot be directly refined by existing processes unless they are upgraded due to its complex composition and high concentration of heteroatoms (N, S, Ni, V, etc.). Of the variety of techniques for heavy oil upgrading, supercritical water (SCW) is gaining popularity because of its excellent ability to convert heavy oil into valued, clean light oil by the suppression of coke formation and the removal of heteroatoms. Based on the current status of this research around the world, heavy oil upgrading in SCW is summarized from three aspects: Transformation of hydrocarbons, suppression of coke, and removal of heteroatoms. In this work, the challenge and future development of the orientation of upgrading heavy oil in SCW are pointed out. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy oil; upgrading; SCW; hydrocarbons transformation; coke suppression; heteroatoms removal heavy oil; upgrading; SCW; hydrocarbons transformation; coke suppression; heteroatoms removal
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, N.; Yan, B.; Xiao, X.-M. A Review of Laboratory-Scale Research on Upgrading Heavy Oil in Supercritical Water. Energies 2015, 8, 8962-8989.

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