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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2011), Pages 931-1270

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Perceived Environmental Factors Associated with Physical Activity among Normal-Weight and Overweight Japanese Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 931-943; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040931
Received: 26 January 2011 / Revised: 3 March 2011 / Accepted: 22 March 2011 / Published: 28 March 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although it is crucial to examine the environmental correlates of physical activity (PA) for developing more effective interventions for overweight populations, limited studies have investigated differences in the environmental correlates on body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to
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Although it is crucial to examine the environmental correlates of physical activity (PA) for developing more effective interventions for overweight populations, limited studies have investigated differences in the environmental correlates on body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived environmental correlates of PA among normal-weight and overweight Japanese men. Data were analyzed for 1,420 men (aged 44.4 ± 8.3 years), who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey of answering the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and its Environment Module. Binary logistic regression analyses were utilized to examine the environmental factors associated with meeting the PA recommendation (150 minutes/week) between the normal-weight and overweight men. After adjusting for socio-demographic variables, common and different environmental correlates of PA were observed among normal-weight and overweight men. Furthermore, significant interactions regarding PA were observed between BMI status and two environmental correlates: access to public transportation (P = 0.03) and crime safety during the day (P = 0.01). The results indicated that BMI status is a potential moderator between perceived environmental factors and PA and suggested that different environmental intervention approaches should be developed for overweight populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 944-954; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040944
Received: 27 January 2011 / Revised: 22 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 30 March 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation,
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Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle An Optimal Centralized Carbon Dioxide Repository for Florida, USA
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 955-975; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040955
Received: 15 February 2011 / Revised: 11 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 31 March 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at
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For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Florida’s electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels), from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s) is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
Open AccessArticle Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 976-984; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040976
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 29 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The carcinogenic effect of smoking on laryngeal cancer is well established; however, the risk pattern for detailed smoking characteristics is less clear. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to quantify the impact of different inhalation behaviours on the risk of laryngeal cancer.
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The carcinogenic effect of smoking on laryngeal cancer is well established; however, the risk pattern for detailed smoking characteristics is less clear. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to quantify the impact of different inhalation behaviours on the risk of laryngeal cancer. We conducted a population-based case control study in Germany, frequency-matched for sex and age, using a standardized questionnaire covering lifelong smoking details, including age at start, time since quitting, types of smoking products, duration, intensity and inhalation behaviour. We found higher risks for increasing duration and intensity of smoking. A clear dose-response relationship was found in all inhalation subgroups, i.e., not only for deep inhalers, but also for those puffing on a cigarette. Clearly reduced risks could be observed for quitting smoking. Changing inhalation habits might be considered as a first step to reducing the risk of developing laryngeal cancer. However, the best way to effectively reduce laryngeal cancer risk is to quit smoking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle A Multidisciplinary, Science-Based Approach to the Economics of Climate Change
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 985-1031; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040985
Received: 4 January 2011 / Revised: 17 March 2011 / Accepted: 21 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1099 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives
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Economic analyses of environmental mitigation and other interdisciplinary public policy issues can be much more useful if they critically examine what other disciplines have to say, insist on using the most relevant observational data and the scientific method, and examine lower cost alternatives to the change proposed. These general principles are illustrated by applying them to the case of climate change mitigation, one of the most interdisciplinary of public policy issues. The analysis shows how use of these principles leads to quite different conclusions than those of most previous such economic analyses, as follows: The economic benefits of reducing CO2 emissions may be about two orders of magnitude less than those estimated by most economists because the climate sensitivity factor (CSF) is much lower than assumed by the United Nations because feedback is negative rather than positive and the effects of CO2 emissions reductions on atmospheric CO2 appear to be short rather than long lasting. The costs of CO2 emissions reductions are very much higher than usually estimated because of technological and implementation problems recently identified. Geoengineering such as solar radiation management is a controversial alternative to CO2 emissions reductions that offers opportunities to greatly decrease these large costs, change global temperatures with far greater assurance of success, and eliminate the possibility of low probability, high consequence risks of rising temperatures, but has been largely ignored by economists. CO2 emissions reductions are economically unattractive since the very modest benefits remaining after the corrections for the above effects are quite unlikely to economically justify the much higher costs unless much lower cost geoengineering is used. The risk of catastrophic anthropogenic global warming appears to be so low that it is not currently worth doing anything to try to control it, including geoengineering. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Economics)
Open AccessArticle An Assessment of Psychological Noise Reduction by Landscape Plants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1032-1048; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041032
Received: 24 February 2011 / Revised: 27 March 2011 / Accepted: 28 March 2011 / Published: 7 April 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The emphasis in the term ‘Green Transportation’ is on the word ‘green’. Green transportation focuses on the construction of a slow transport system with a visually pleasing, easy and secure trip environment composed of urban parks, green roadside spaces and some other space
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The emphasis in the term ‘Green Transportation’ is on the word ‘green’. Green transportation focuses on the construction of a slow transport system with a visually pleasing, easy and secure trip environment composed of urban parks, green roadside spaces and some other space that is full of landscape plants. This trip environment encourages residents to make trip choices that reduce fuel consumption and pollution and is one of the most important ways of popularizing green transportation. To study the psychological benefits provided by urban parks and other landscape environments, we combined a subjective approach (a questionnaire) with an objective quantitative approach (emotional tests using an electroencephalogram; EEG). Using a questionnaire survey, we found that 90% of the subjects believed that landscape plants contribute to noise reduction and that 55% overrated the plants’ actual ability to attenuate noise. Two videos (showing a traffic scene and a plant scene) were shown to 40 participants on video glasses. We detected and recorded EEG values with a portable electroencephalograph, and a comparison between the results of the two groups revealed that there was a highly significant asymmetry between the EEG activity of the vegetation scene and traffic scene groups. The results suggest that the emotions aroused by noise and visual stimuli are manifested in the synchronization of beta frequency band and the desynchronization of alpha frequency band, indicating that landscape plants can moderate or buffer the effects of noise. These findings indicate that landscape plants provide excess noise attenuating effects through subjects’ emotional processing, which we term ‘psychological noise reduction’. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Four-Step Method for Optimising the Normal Water Level of Reservoirs Based on a Mathematical Programming Model—A Case Study for the Songyuan Backwater Dam in Jilin Province, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1049-1060; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041049
Received: 1 November 2010 / Revised: 31 December 2010 / Accepted: 26 March 2011 / Published: 7 April 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Determination of the optimal normal water level of reservoirs (RNWL) was investigated, incorporating environmental ecology as a primary consideration. RNWL constitutes a relatively significant eigenvalue of any water conservancy project. In the present study, a four-step method based on a mathematical programming model
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Determination of the optimal normal water level of reservoirs (RNWL) was investigated, incorporating environmental ecology as a primary consideration. RNWL constitutes a relatively significant eigenvalue of any water conservancy project. In the present study, a four-step method based on a mathematical programming model and suitable for RNWL decision making was developed and applied to the water conservancy project of the Songyuan backwater dam in China. System analysis, correlation analysis, significance testing, principal component analysis, sensitivity analysis, and system optimisation theory are used in the solution process. In this study, various factors that impact the economic viability, engineering characteristics, environmental and urban ecology are considered for holistic optimisation. The study shows that the proposed four-step method may provide a feasible quantitative form of support for RNWL decision making. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1061-1083; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041061
Received: 10 February 2011 / Revised: 11 March 2011 / Accepted: 29 March 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP)
[...] Read more.
Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP) and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP)) in urine samples collected from ~400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides and Health)
Open AccessArticle Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1084-1109; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041084
Received: 2 February 2011 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 30 March 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1867 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Taiwan many factors, whether geological parent materials, human activities, and climate change, can affect the groundwater quality and its stability. This work combines factor analysis and kriging with information entropy theory to interpret the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan between
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In Taiwan many factors, whether geological parent materials, human activities, and climate change, can affect the groundwater quality and its stability. This work combines factor analysis and kriging with information entropy theory to interpret the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan between 2005 and 2007. Groundwater quality demonstrated apparent differences between the northern and southern areas of Taiwan when divided by the Wu River. Approximately 52% of the monitoring wells in southern Taiwan suffered from progressing seawater intrusion, causing unstable groundwater quality. Industrial and livestock wastewaters also polluted 59.6% of the monitoring wells, resulting in elevated EC and TOC concentrations in the groundwater. In northern Taiwan, domestic wastewaters polluted city groundwater, resulting in higher NH3-N concentration and groundwater quality instability was apparent among 10.3% of the monitoring wells. The method proposed in this study for analyzing groundwater quality inspects common stability factors, identifies potential areas influenced by common factors, and assists in elevating and reinforcing information in support of an overall groundwater management strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different Levels of Air Pollution in a Turkish City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1110-1125; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041110
Received: 11 February 2011 / Revised: 10 March 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 14 April 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were
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In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Health Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Water Quality in a Subtropical Alpine Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques and Geostatistical Mapping: A Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1126-1140; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041126
Received: 14 March 2011 / Revised: 8 April 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (741 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concerns about the water quality in Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL), a shallow, subtropical alpine lake located in north-central Taiwan, has been rapidly increasing recently due to the natural and anthropogenic pollution. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as
[...] Read more.
Concerns about the water quality in Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL), a shallow, subtropical alpine lake located in north-central Taiwan, has been rapidly increasing recently due to the natural and anthropogenic pollution. In order to understand the underlying physical and chemical processes as well as their associated spatial distribution in YYL, this study analyzes fourteen physico-chemical water quality parameters recorded at the eight sampling stations during 2008–2010 by using multivariate statistical techniques and a geostatistical method. Hierarchical clustering analysis (CA) is first applied to distinguish the three general water quality patterns among the stations, followed by the use of principle component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) to extract and recognize the major underlying factors contributing to the variations among the water quality measures. The spatial distribution of the identified major contributing factors is obtained by using a kriging method. Results show that four principal components i.e., nitrogen nutrients, meteorological factor, turbidity and nitrate factors, account for 65.52% of the total variance among the water quality parameters. The spatial distribution of principal components further confirms that nitrogen sources constitute an important pollutant contribution in the YYL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle The Public Health Impact of Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1150-1173; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041150
Received: 24 February 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Cited by 45 | PDF Full-text (662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information,
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The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in California experienced a disproportionately higher frequency of disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Lack of early diagnosis continues to be a problem, particularly in suspect community-acquired pneumonia, underscoring the need for more rapid and sensitive tests. Similarly, the inability of currently available therapeutics to reduce the duration and morbidity of this disease underscores the need for improved therapeutics and a preventive vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Combining a Fuzzy Matter-Element Model with a Geographic Information System in Eco-Environmental Sensitivity and Distribution of Land Use Planning
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1206-1221; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041206
Received: 20 February 2011 / Revised: 14 March 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (862 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainable ecological and environmental development is the basis of regional development. The sensitivity classification of the ecological environment is the premise of its spatial distribution for land use planning. In this paper, a fuzzy matter-element model and factor-overlay method were employed to analyze
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Sustainable ecological and environmental development is the basis of regional development. The sensitivity classification of the ecological environment is the premise of its spatial distribution for land use planning. In this paper, a fuzzy matter-element model and factor-overlay method were employed to analyze the ecological sensitivity in Yicheng City. Four ecological indicators, including soil condition,, water condition,, atmospheric conditions and biodiversity were used to classify the ecological sensitivity. The results were categorized into five ranks: insensitive, slightly sensitive, moderately sensitive, highly sensitive and extremely sensitive zones. The spatial distribution map of environmental sensitivity for land use planning was obtained using GIS (Geographical Information System) techniques. The results illustrated that the extremely sensitive and highly sensitive areas accounted for 14.40% and 30.12% of the total area, respectively, while the moderately sensitive and slightly sensitive areas are 25.99% and 29.49%, respectively. The results provide the theoretical foundation for land use planning by categorizing all kinds of land types in Yicheng City. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
Open AccessArticle Survey Mode Effects on Valuation of Environmental Goods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1222-1243; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041222
Received: 10 March 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article evaluates the effect of the choice of survey recruitment mode on the value of water quality in lakes, rivers, and streams. Four different modes are compared: bringing respondents to one central location after phone recruitment, mall intercepts in two states, national
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This article evaluates the effect of the choice of survey recruitment mode on the value of water quality in lakes, rivers, and streams. Four different modes are compared: bringing respondents to one central location after phone recruitment, mall intercepts in two states, national phone-mail survey, and an Internet survey with a national, probability-based panel. The modes differ in terms of the representativeness of the samples, non-response rates, sample selection effects, and consistency of responses. The article also shows that the estimated value of water quality can differ substantially depending on the survey mode. The national Internet panel has the most desirable properties with respect to performance on the four important survey dimensions of interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Economics)
Open AccessArticle Population Surveillance of Dementia Mortality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1244-1257; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041244
Received: 7 March 2011 / Revised: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 12 April 2011 / Published: 20 April 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geographic and temporal variation in occurrence of dementia within the US has received little attention despite its importance for generation of new etiologic hypotheses and health services research. We examine methodological problems in the use of vital statistics data for assessing variation over
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Geographic and temporal variation in occurrence of dementia within the US has received little attention despite its importance for generation of new etiologic hypotheses and health services research. We examine methodological problems in the use of vital statistics data for assessing variation over time, among states and within states in the US. We analyzed the US multiple cause of death files for 2005–2006 and 1999–2000 US deaths with Alzheimer’s Disease (International Classification of Disease 10th revision code G30) and other dementias (codes F01, F02, R54) coded as underlying or contributing cause of death based on the death certificate. Age-adjusted death rates were computed by year, state or county for persons aged 65 years and over. In 2005–2006 combined, 555,904 total deaths occurred with any dementia type (212,386 for Alzheimer’s disease) coded as underlying or contributing cause. Among the states, age-adjusted rates per 100,000 per year varied by two fold ranging from 458 in New York to 921 in Oregon. Similar geographic patterns were seen for Alzheimer’s disease. However, between 1999–2000 and 2005–2006 the US death rate for all dementia increased only from 559 to 695 (24%) while that for Alzheimer’s disease doubled from 135 to 266. Use of specific (G30, F01) versus non-specific diagnoses (F02, R54) varied among states and over time, explaining most of the temporal increase in rate of Alzheimer’s disease. Further research is needed to assess artifacts of diagnosis, certification or coding, utilization of health services, versus biological variation as possible causes of temporal and geographic variation to enhance utility of mortality data for dementia monitoring and research. Full article
Open AccessArticle Degradation of Glyphosate in Soil Photocatalyzed by Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 under Solar Light
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1258-1270; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041258
Received: 20 February 2011 / Revised: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 1 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared via a sol-gel method, and Fe3O4 particles were used as the core of the colloid. Diffraction peaks of Fe3O4 crystals are not found
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In this study, Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared via a sol-gel method, and Fe3O4 particles were used as the core of the colloid. Diffraction peaks of Fe3O4 crystals are not found by XRD characterization, indicating that Fe3O4 particles are well encapsulated by SiO2. FTIR characterization shows that diffraction peaks of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds become obvious when the Fe3O4 loading is more than 0.5%. SEM characterization indicates that agglomeration occurs in the Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 photocatalyst, whereas photocatalysts modified by Fe3O4/SiO2 present excellent visible light absorption performance and photocatalytic activity, especially when the Fe3O4 loading is 0.5%. Photocatalytic degradation of glyphosate in soil by these photocatalysts under solar irradiation was investigated. Results show that 0.5% Fe3O4/SiO2/TiO2 has the best photocatalytic activity. The best moisture content of soil is 30%~50%. Degradation efficiency of glyphosate reaches 89% in 2 h when the dosage of photocatalyst is 0.4 g/100 g (soil), and it increased slowly when more photocatalyst was used. Soil thickness is a very important factor for the photocatalytic rate. The thinner the soil is, the better the glyphosate degradation is. Degradation of glyphosate is not obviously affected by sunlight intensity when the intensity is below 6 mW/cm2 or above 10 mW/cm2, but it is accelerated significantly when the sunlight intensity increases from 6 mW/cm2 to 10 mW/cm2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution: Prevention and Mitigation)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Dynamics of Norovirus Outbreak Epidemics: Recent Insights
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1141-1149; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041141
Received: 23 February 2011 / Revised: 11 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (134 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur as epidemics which appear to be related to both genetic and environmental factors. This review considers recent progress in understanding these factors. The norovirus genome undergoes continuous change and this
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Noroviruses are a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. Norovirus outbreaks frequently occur as epidemics which appear to be related to both genetic and environmental factors. This review considers recent progress in understanding these factors. The norovirus genome undergoes continuous change and this appears to be important in the persistence of the virus in the community. Studies on the common GII.4 genotype have shown that some norovirus outbreak epidemics involving this genotype are correlated with specific changes in the genome. In contrast to the growing understanding of the role of genetic factors in norovirus outbreak epidemics, the role of environmental factors is less well understood. Topics reviewed here include long term excretion of norovirus in some individuals, long term survivability of norovirus in the environment, the role of meteorological factors in the control of norovirus outbreaks and the possible zoonotic transmission of the virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Public Health)
Open AccessReview Malnutrition and Gastrointestinal and Respiratory Infections in Children: A Public Health Problem
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1174-1205; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041174
Received: 12 February 2011 / Revised: 7 April 2011 / Accepted: 11 April 2011 / Published: 18 April 2011
Cited by 60 | PDF Full-text (639 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition,
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Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which can result in a vicious cycle. Malnutrition and bacterial gastrointestinal and respiratory infections represent a serious public health problem. The increased incidence and severity of infections in malnourished children is largely due to the deterioration of immune function; limited production and/or diminished functional capacity of all cellular components of the immune system have been reported in malnutrition. In this review, we analyze the cyclical relationship between malnutrition, immune response dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infectious disease, and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status. The consequences of malnutrition are diverse and included: increased susceptibility to infection, impaired child development, increased mortality rate and individuals who come to function in suboptimal ways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Public Health)

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