Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 944-954; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040944
Article

Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

1,2,*  and 1,2
Received: 27 January 2011; in revised form: 22 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 30 March 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [184 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians.
Keywords: American Indian; tobacco; cigarette smoking; rural populations; prevalence; patterns of smoking American Indian; tobacco; cigarette smoking; rural populations; prevalence; patterns of smoking
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Hodge, F.; Nandy, K. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 944-954.

AMA Style

Hodge F, Nandy K. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4):944-954.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi. 2011. "Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 944-954.


Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert