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Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings
School of Nursing, University of California, Los Angeles, P.O. Box 951702, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, P.O. Box 951772, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 January 2011; in revised form: 22 March 2011 / Accepted: 25 March 2011 / Published: 30 March 2011
Abstract: Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work). Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively). American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7). Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack), smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians.
Keywords: American Indian; tobacco; cigarette smoking; rural populations; prevalence; patterns of smoking
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MDPI and ACS Style
Hodge, F.; Nandy, K. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 944-954.
Hodge F, Nandy K. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4):944-954.
Hodge, Felicia; Nandy, Karabi. 2011. "Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 944-954.