Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1084-1109; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041084
Article

Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan

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Received: 2 February 2011; in revised form: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 30 March 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geostatistics in Environmental Pollution and Risk Assessment)
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Abstract: In Taiwan many factors, whether geological parent materials, human activities, and climate change, can affect the groundwater quality and its stability. This work combines factor analysis and kriging with information entropy theory to interpret the stability of groundwater quality variation in Taiwan between 2005 and 2007. Groundwater quality demonstrated apparent differences between the northern and southern areas of Taiwan when divided by the Wu River. Approximately 52% of the monitoring wells in southern Taiwan suffered from progressing seawater intrusion, causing unstable groundwater quality. Industrial and livestock wastewaters also polluted 59.6% of the monitoring wells, resulting in elevated EC and TOC concentrations in the groundwater. In northern Taiwan, domestic wastewaters polluted city groundwater, resulting in higher NH3-N concentration and groundwater quality instability was apparent among 10.3% of the monitoring wells. The method proposed in this study for analyzing groundwater quality inspects common stability factors, identifies potential areas influenced by common factors, and assists in elevating and reinforcing information in support of an overall groundwater management strategy.
Keywords: Kriging; factor analysis; information entropy theory; groundwater; GIS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shyu, G.-S.; Cheng, B.-Y.; Chiang, C.-T.; Yao, P.-H.; Chang, T.-K. Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1084-1109.

AMA Style

Shyu G-S, Cheng B-Y, Chiang C-T, Yao P-H, Chang T-K. Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4):1084-1109.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shyu, Guey-Shin; Cheng, Bai-You; Chiang, Chi-Ting; Yao, Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Tsun-Kuo. 2011. "Applying Factor Analysis Combined with Kriging and Information Entropy Theory for Mapping and Evaluating the Stability of Groundwater Quality Variation in Taiwan." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 1084-1109.


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