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Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community
Center for Environmental Research and Children’s Health (CERCH), School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, 1995 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, 1518 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
Environmental Health Investigations Branch, California Department of Public Health, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA 94804, USA
Division of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, 50 University Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2011; in revised form: 11 March 2011 / Accepted: 29 March 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
Abstract: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP) and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP)) in urine samples collected from ~400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite.
Keywords: children; organophosphorus; pesticides; exposure; agriculture; biomarkers; diet
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Bradman, A.; Castorina, R.; Boyd Barr, D.; Chevrier, J.; Harnly, M.E.; Eisen, E.A.; McKone, T.E.; Harley, K.; Holland, N.; Eskenazi, B. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1061-1083.
Bradman A, Castorina R, Boyd Barr D, Chevrier J, Harnly ME, Eisen EA, McKone TE, Harley K, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4):1061-1083.
Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Boyd Barr, Dana; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harnly, Martha E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; McKone, Thomas E.; Harley, Kim; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda. 2011. "Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 1061-1083.