Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 1061-1083; doi:10.3390/ijerph8041061
Article

Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community

Received: 10 February 2011; in revised form: 11 March 2011 / Accepted: 29 March 2011 / Published: 8 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides and Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP) and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP)) in urine samples collected from ~400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite.
Keywords: children; organophosphorus; pesticides; exposure; agriculture; biomarkers; diet
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bradman, A.; Castorina, R.; Boyd Barr, D.; Chevrier, J.; Harnly, M.E.; Eisen, E.A.; McKone, T.E.; Harley, K.; Holland, N.; Eskenazi, B. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1061-1083.

AMA Style

Bradman A, Castorina R, Boyd Barr D, Chevrier J, Harnly ME, Eisen EA, McKone TE, Harley K, Holland N, Eskenazi B. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4):1061-1083.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Boyd Barr, Dana; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harnly, Martha E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; McKone, Thomas E.; Harley, Kim; Holland, Nina; Eskenazi, Brenda. 2011. "Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 1061-1083.

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