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The Public Health Impact of Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California
Global Health Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF),1200 Beale St., #1200, San Francisco, CA 94105, USA
Arizona Department of Health Services, 150 N 18th Ave., Ste. 140, Phoenix, AZ 85007, USA
Infectious Diseases Branch, Division of Communicable Disease Control (DCDC), Center for Infectious Diseases (CID), California Department of Public Health, P.O. Box 997377, Sacramento, CA 95899, USA
Valley Fever Center for Excellence, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, 1656 E. Mabel Street, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2011; in revised form: 12 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 15 April 2011
Abstract: The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in California experienced a disproportionately higher frequency of disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Lack of early diagnosis continues to be a problem, particularly in suspect community-acquired pneumonia, underscoring the need for more rapid and sensitive tests. Similarly, the inability of currently available therapeutics to reduce the duration and morbidity of this disease underscores the need for improved therapeutics and a preventive vaccine.
Keywords: coccidioidomycosis; community-acquired pneumonia; diagnostics; azoles; vaccine
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Hector, R.F.; Rutherford, G.W.; Tsang, C.A.; Erhart, L.M.; McCotter, O.; Anderson, S.M.; Komatsu, K.; Tabnak, F.; Vugia, D.J.; Yang, Y.; Galgiani, J.N. The Public Health Impact of Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 1150-1173.
Hector RF, Rutherford GW, Tsang CA, Erhart LM, McCotter O, Anderson SM, Komatsu K, Tabnak F, Vugia DJ, Yang Y, Galgiani JN. The Public Health Impact of Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4):1150-1173.
Hector, Richard F.; Rutherford, George W.; Tsang, Clarisse A.; Erhart, Laura M.; McCotter, Orion; Anderson, Shoana M.; Komatsu, Kenneth; Tabnak, Farzaneh; Vugia, Duc J.; Yang, Ying; Galgiani, John N. 2011. "The Public Health Impact of Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 1150-1173.