Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 976-984; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040976
Article

Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer

1 Institute of Public Health, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany 2 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 10-14, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 December 2010; in revised form: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 29 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [199 KB, uploaded 1 April 2011 09:39 CEST]
Abstract: The carcinogenic effect of smoking on laryngeal cancer is well established; however, the risk pattern for detailed smoking characteristics is less clear. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to quantify the impact of different inhalation behaviours on the risk of laryngeal cancer. We conducted a population-based case control study in Germany, frequency-matched for sex and age, using a standardized questionnaire covering lifelong smoking details, including age at start, time since quitting, types of smoking products, duration, intensity and inhalation behaviour. We found higher risks for increasing duration and intensity of smoking. A clear dose-response relationship was found in all inhalation subgroups, i.e., not only for deep inhalers, but also for those puffing on a cigarette. Clearly reduced risks could be observed for quitting smoking. Changing inhalation habits might be considered as a first step to reducing the risk of developing laryngeal cancer. However, the best way to effectively reduce laryngeal cancer risk is to quit smoking.
Keywords: laryngeal cancer; smoking, inhalation; smoking intensity; puffing; quitting smoking

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ramroth, H.; Dietz, A.; Becher, H. Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 976-984.

AMA Style

Ramroth H, Dietz A, Becher H. Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4):976-984.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramroth, Heribert; Dietz, Andreas; Becher, Heiko. 2011. "Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 976-984.

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert