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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8(4), 976-984; doi:10.3390/ijerph8040976
Article

Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer

1,* , 2
 and 1
Received: 17 December 2010; in revised form: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 29 March 2011 / Published: 1 April 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
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Abstract: The carcinogenic effect of smoking on laryngeal cancer is well established; however, the risk pattern for detailed smoking characteristics is less clear. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to quantify the impact of different inhalation behaviours on the risk of laryngeal cancer. We conducted a population-based case control study in Germany, frequency-matched for sex and age, using a standardized questionnaire covering lifelong smoking details, including age at start, time since quitting, types of smoking products, duration, intensity and inhalation behaviour. We found higher risks for increasing duration and intensity of smoking. A clear dose-response relationship was found in all inhalation subgroups, i.e., not only for deep inhalers, but also for those puffing on a cigarette. Clearly reduced risks could be observed for quitting smoking. Changing inhalation habits might be considered as a first step to reducing the risk of developing laryngeal cancer. However, the best way to effectively reduce laryngeal cancer risk is to quit smoking.
Keywords: laryngeal cancer; smoking, inhalation; smoking intensity; puffing; quitting smoking laryngeal cancer; smoking, inhalation; smoking intensity; puffing; quitting smoking
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramroth, H.; Dietz, A.; Becher, H. Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 976-984.

AMA Style

Ramroth H, Dietz A, Becher H. Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011; 8(4):976-984.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramroth, Heribert; Dietz, Andreas; Becher, Heiko. 2011. "Intensity and Inhalation of Smoking in the Aetiology of Laryngeal Cancer." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 8, no. 4: 976-984.


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