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Mar. Drugs, Volume 14, Issue 6 (June 2016)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 104; doi:10.3390/md14060104
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive
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Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring) to 50.4% (winter). Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter). Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs) with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter). Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5%) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5%) were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter). Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessArticle Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 105; doi:10.3390/md14060105
Received: 8 February 2016 / Revised: 1 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils
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The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessArticle Metals of Deep Ocean Water Increase the Anti-Adipogenesis Effect of Monascus-Fermented Product via Modulating the Monascin and Ankaflavin Production
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 106; doi:10.3390/md14060106
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deep ocean water (DOW) obtained from a depth of more than 200 m includes abundant nutrients and minerals. DOW was proven to positively increase monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) production and the anti-adipogenesis effect of Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD). However, the
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Deep ocean water (DOW) obtained from a depth of more than 200 m includes abundant nutrients and minerals. DOW was proven to positively increase monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) production and the anti-adipogenesis effect of Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD). However, the influences that the major metals in DOW have on Monascus secondary metabolite biosynthesis and anti-adipogenesis remain unknown. Therefore, the major metals in DOW were used as the culture water to produce RMD. The secondary metabolites production and anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD cultured with various individual metal waters were investigated. In the results, the addition of water with Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe increased MS and AK production and inhibited mycotoxin citrinin (CT). However, the positive influence may be contributed to the regulation of pigment biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the results of cell testing, higher lipogenesis inhibition was seen in the treatments of various ethanol extracts of RMD cultured with water containing Mg, K, Zn, and Fe than in those of RMD cultured with ultra-pure water. In conclusion, various individual metals resulted in different effects on MS and AK productions as well as the anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD, but the specific metals contained in DOW may cause synergistic or comprehensive effects that increase the significantly positive influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products that Target Metabolic Disorders)
Open AccessArticle Biosynthetic Functional Gene Analysis of Bis-Indole Metabolites from 25D7, a Clone Derived from a Deep-Sea Sediment Metagenomic Library
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 107; doi:10.3390/md14060107
Received: 25 December 2015 / Revised: 10 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
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Abstract
This work investigated the metabolites and their biosynthetic functional hydroxylase genes of the deep-sea sediment metagenomic clone 25D7. 5-Bromoindole was added to the 25D7 clone derived Escherichia coli fermentation broth. The new-generated metabolites and their biosynthetic byproducts were located through LC-MS, in which
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This work investigated the metabolites and their biosynthetic functional hydroxylase genes of the deep-sea sediment metagenomic clone 25D7. 5-Bromoindole was added to the 25D7 clone derived Escherichia coli fermentation broth. The new-generated metabolites and their biosynthetic byproducts were located through LC-MS, in which the isotope peaks of brominated products emerged. Two new brominated bis-indole metabolites, 5-bromometagenediindole B (1), and 5-bromometagenediindole C (2) were separated under the guidance of LC-MS. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC). The biosynthetic functional genes of the two new compounds were revealed through LC-MS and transposon mutagenesis analysis. 5-Bromometagenediindole B (1) also demonstrated moderately cytotoxic activity against MCF7, B16, CNE2, Bel7402, and HT1080 tumor cell lines in vitro. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep-Sea Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Alginate to Produce Oligosaccharides by a New Purified Endo-Type Alginate Lyase
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 108; doi:10.3390/md14060108
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 6 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1900 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium alginate to produce alginate oligosaccharides has drawn increasing attention due to its advantages of containing a wild reaction condition, excellent gel properties and specific products easy for purification. However, the efficient commercial enzyme tools are rarely available. A new
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Enzymatic hydrolysis of sodium alginate to produce alginate oligosaccharides has drawn increasing attention due to its advantages of containing a wild reaction condition, excellent gel properties and specific products easy for purification. However, the efficient commercial enzyme tools are rarely available. A new alginate lyase with high activity (24,038 U/mg) has been purified from a newly isolated marine strain, Cellulophaga sp. NJ-1. The enzyme was most active at 50 °C and pH 8.0 and maintained stability at a broad pH range (6.0–10.0) and temperature below 40 °C. It had broad substrate specificity toward sodium alginate, heteropolymeric MG blocks (polyMG), homopolymeric M blocks (polyM) and homopolymeric G blocks (polyG), and possessed higher affinity toward polyG (15.63 mM) as well as polyMG (23.90 mM) than polyM (53.61 mM) and sodium alginate (27.21 mM). The TLC and MS spectroscopy analysis of degradation products suggested that it completely hydrolyzed sodium alginate into oligosaccharides of low degrees of polymerization (DPs). The excellent properties would make it a promising tool for full use of sodium alginate to produce oligosaccharides. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coral Carbonic Anhydrases: Regulation by Ocean Acidification
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 109; doi:10.3390/md14060109
Received: 30 March 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2404 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies
[...] Read more.
Global change is a major threat to the oceans, as it implies temperature increase and acidification. Ocean acidification (OA) involving decreasing pH and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry challenges the capacity of corals to form their skeletons. Despite the large number of studies that have investigated how rates of calcification respond to ocean acidification scenarios, comparatively few studies tackle how ocean acidification impacts the physiological mechanisms that drive calcification itself. The aim of our paper was to determine how the carbonic anhydrases, which play a major role in calcification, are potentially regulated by ocean acidification. For this we measured the effect of pH on enzyme activity of two carbonic anhydrase isoforms that have been previously characterized in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. In addition we looked at gene expression of these enzymes in vivo. For both isoforms, our results show (1) a change in gene expression under OA (2) an effect of OA and temperature on carbonic anhydrase activity. We suggest that temperature increase could counterbalance the effect of OA on enzyme activity. Finally we point out that caution must, thus, be taken when interpreting transcriptomic data on carbonic anhydrases in ocean acidification and temperature stress experiments, as the effect of these stressors on the physiological function of CA will depend both on gene expression and enzyme activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Proteins and Peptides)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Razor Clam Sinonovacula constricta
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 110; doi:10.3390/md14060110
Received: 11 April 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of razor clam hydrolysates produced using five proteases, namely, pepsin, trypsin, alcalase, flavourzyme and proteases from Actinomucor elegans T3 was investigated. Flavourzyme hydrolysate showed the highest level of degree of hydrolysis (DH) (45.87%) followed by A. elegans
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Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of razor clam hydrolysates produced using five proteases, namely, pepsin, trypsin, alcalase, flavourzyme and proteases from Actinomucor elegans T3 was investigated. Flavourzyme hydrolysate showed the highest level of degree of hydrolysis (DH) (45.87%) followed by A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate (37.84%) and alcalase (30.55%). The A. elegans T3 proteases was observed to be more effective in generating small peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity. The 3 kDa membrane permeate of A. elegans T3 proteases hydrolysate showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.79 mg/mL. After chromatographic separation by Sephadex G-15 gel filtration and reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, the potent fraction was subjected to MALDI/TOF-TOF MS/MS for identification. A novel ACE-inhibitory peptide (VQY) was identified exhibiting an IC50 of 9.8 μM. The inhibitory kinetics investigation by Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that the peptide acts as a competitive ACE inhibitor. The razor clam hydrolysate obtained by A. elegans T3 proteases could serve as a source of functional peptides with ACE-inhibitory activity for physiological benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Proteins and Peptides)
Open AccessArticle Cembranoids from a Chinese Collection of the Soft Coral Lobophytum crassum
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 111; doi:10.3390/md14060111
Received: 25 April 2016 / Revised: 19 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 3 June 2016
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Abstract
Ten new cembrane-based diterpenes, locrassumins A–G (17), (–)-laevigatol B (8), (–)-isosarcophine (9), and (–)-7R,8S-dihydroxydeepoxysarcophytoxide (10), were isolated from a South China Sea collection of the soft coral Lobophytum crassum
[...] Read more.
Ten new cembrane-based diterpenes, locrassumins A–G (17), (–)-laevigatol B (8), (–)-isosarcophine (9), and (–)-7R,8S-dihydroxydeepoxysarcophytoxide (10), were isolated from a South China Sea collection of the soft coral Lobophytum crassum, together with eight known analogues (1118). The structures of the new compounds were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison with previously reported data. Locrassumin C (3) possesses an unprecedented tetradecahydrobenzo[3,4]cyclobuta[1,2][8]annulene ring system. Compounds 1, 7, 12, 13, and 17 exhibited moderate inhibition against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values of 8–24 μM. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
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Open AccessCommunication Synthesis of Phthalimide Derivatives as Potential PPAR-γ Ligands
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 112; doi:10.3390/md14060112
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 30 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2896 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Paecilocin A, a phthalide derivative isolated from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii, activates PPAR-γ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) in rat liver Ac2F cells. Based on a SAR (Structure-activity relationships) study and in silico analysis of paecilocin A-mimetic derivatives, additional N-substituted phthalimide
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Paecilocin A, a phthalide derivative isolated from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii, activates PPAR-γ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) in rat liver Ac2F cells. Based on a SAR (Structure-activity relationships) study and in silico analysis of paecilocin A-mimetic derivatives, additional N-substituted phthalimide derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for PPAR-γ agonistic activity in both murine liver Ac2F cells and in human liver HepG2 cells by luciferase assay, and for adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 cells. Docking simulation indicated PD6 was likely to bind most strongly to the ligand binding domain of PPAR-γ by establishing crucial H-bonds with key amino acid residues. However, in in vitro assays, PD1 and PD2 consistently displayed significant PPAR-γ activation in Ac2F and HepG2 cells, and adipogenic activity in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Absorption and Transport of Sea Cucumber Saponins from Apostichopus japonicus
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 114; doi:10.3390/md14060114
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A.
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The present study is focused on the intestinal absorption of sea cucumber saponins. We determined the pharmacokinetic characteristics and bioavailability of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1; the findings indicated that the bioavailability of Holotoxin A1 was lower than Echinoside A. We inferred that the differences in chemical structure between compounds was a factor that explained their different characteristics of transport across the intestine. In order to confirm the absorption characteristics of Echinoside A and Holotoxin A1, we examined their transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer and effective permeability by single-pass intestinal perfusion. The results of Caco-2 cell model indicate that Echinoside A is transported by passive diffusion, and not influenced by the exocytosis of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, expressed in the apical side of Caco-2 monolayers as the classic inhibitor). The intestinal perfusion also demonstrated well the absorption of Echinoside A and poor absorption of Holotoxin A1, which matched up with the result of the Caco-2 cell model. The results demonstrated our conjecture and provides fundamental information on the relationship between the chemical structure of these sea cucumber saponins and their absorption characteristics, and we believe that our findings build a foundation for the further metabolism study of sea cucumber saponins and contribute to the further clinical research of saponins. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds from Marine Invertebrates)
Open AccessArticle Pharmacokinetics in Mouse and Comparative Effects of Frondosides in Pancreatic Cancer
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 115; doi:10.3390/md14060115
Received: 14 April 2016 / Revised: 15 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The frondosides are triterpenoid glycosides from the Atlantic sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A inhibits growth, invasion, metastases and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in diverse cancer types, including pancreatic cancer. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of three frondosides and their aglycone
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The frondosides are triterpenoid glycosides from the Atlantic sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa. Frondoside A inhibits growth, invasion, metastases and angiogenesis and induces apoptosis in diverse cancer types, including pancreatic cancer. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of three frondosides and their aglycone and related this to the pharmocokinetics and route of administration. Frondoside A potently inhibited growth of pancreatic cancer cells with an EC50 of ~1 µM. Frondoside B was less potent (EC50 ~2.5 µM). Frondoside C and the aglycone had no effect. At 100 µg/kg, frondoside A administered to CD2F1 mice as an i.v. bolus, the Cpmax was 129 nM, Cltb was 6.35 mL/min/m2, and half-life was 510 min. With i.p. administration the Cpmax was 18.3 nM, Cltb was 127 mL/min/m2 and half-life was 840 min. Oral dosing was ineffective. Frondoside A (100 µg/kg/day i.p.) markedly inhibited growth cancer xenografts in nude mice. The same dose delivered by oral gavage had no effect. No evidence of acute toxicity was seen with frondoside A. Frondoside A is more potent inhibitor of cancer growth than other frondosides. The glycoside component is essential for bioactivity. Frondoside A is only effective when administered systemically. Based on the current and previous studies, frondoside A appears safe and may be valuable in the treatment of cancer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Anti-Influenza A Virus Activity of 6′-amino-6′-deoxy-glucoglycerolipids Analogs
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 116; doi:10.3390/md14060116
Received: 1 April 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
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Abstract
A series of aminoglucoglycerolipids derivatives had been synthesized, including 6′-acylamido-glucoglycerolipids 1a1f and corresponding 2′-acylamido-glucoglycerolipids 2a2c bearing different fatty acids, glucosyl diglycerides 3a3e bearing different functional groups at C-6′ and ether-linked glucoglycerolipids 4a4c with double-tailed alkyl
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A series of aminoglucoglycerolipids derivatives had been synthesized, including 6′-acylamido-glucoglycerolipids 1a1f and corresponding 2′-acylamido-glucoglycerolipids 2a2c bearing different fatty acids, glucosyl diglycerides 3a3e bearing different functional groups at C-6′ and ether-linked glucoglycerolipids 4a4c with double-tailed alkyl alcohol. The anti-influenza A virus (IAV) activity was evaluated by the cytopathic effects (CPE) inhibition assay. The results indicated that the integral structure of the aminoglycoglycerolipid was essential for the inhibition of IAV in MDCK cells. Furthermore, oral administration of compound 1d was able to significantly improve survival and decrease pulmonary viral titers in IAV-infected mice, which suggested that compound 1d merited further investigation as a novel anti-IAV candidate in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drug Design Based on Marine Natural Product Scaffolds)
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Open AccessArticle Phallusiasterol C, A New Disulfated Steroid from the Mediterranean Tunicate Phallusia fumigata
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 117; doi:10.3390/md14060117
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 31 May 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 18 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A new sulfated sterol, phallusiasterol C (1), has been isolated from the Mediterranean ascidian Phallusia fumigata and its structure has been determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (mainly 2D NMR) analysis. The possible role in regulating the pregnane X receptor
[...] Read more.
A new sulfated sterol, phallusiasterol C (1), has been isolated from the Mediterranean ascidian Phallusia fumigata and its structure has been determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (mainly 2D NMR) analysis. The possible role in regulating the pregnane X receptor (PXR) activity of phallusiasterol C has been investigated; although the new sterol resulted inactive, this study adds more items to the knowledge of the structure-PXR regulating activity relationships in the case of sulfated steroids. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Pelorol and Its Analogs and Their Inhibitory Effects on Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 118; doi:10.3390/md14060118
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 13 May 2016 / Accepted: 18 May 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
PDF Full-text (1238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There are numerous biologically active substances with novel structures and unique physiological functions in marine organisms. These substances are important sources of new lead compounds. Pelorol is a natural product isolated from marine organisms that possesses a novel structure with high bioactivity. In
[...] Read more.
There are numerous biologically active substances with novel structures and unique physiological functions in marine organisms. These substances are important sources of new lead compounds. Pelorol is a natural product isolated from marine organisms that possesses a novel structure with high bioactivity. In this paper, the synthesis of pelorol has been completed, and the synthesis of some intermediates has been optimized and scaled up. Five pelorol analogs have also been prepared. Preliminary biological activity testing demonstrated that compounds 5 and 6 might be potential lead compounds for cancer therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthesis of Antitumor Marine Alkaloids and Related Analogues)
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Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory Effects of the Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Shinorine and Porphyra-334
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 119; doi:10.3390/md14060119
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1063 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites, produced by a large variety of microorganisms including algae, cyanobacteria, lichen and fungi. MAAs act as UV-absorbers and photo-protectants. MAAs are suggested to exert pharmaceutical relevant bioactivities in the human system. We particularly focused on their
[...] Read more.
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites, produced by a large variety of microorganisms including algae, cyanobacteria, lichen and fungi. MAAs act as UV-absorbers and photo-protectants. MAAs are suggested to exert pharmaceutical relevant bioactivities in the human system. We particularly focused on their effect on defence and regulatory pathways that are active in inflamed environments. The MAAs shinorine and porphyra-334 were isolated and purified from the red algae Porphyra sp. using chromatographic methods. The effect of MAAs on central signaling cascades, such as transcription factor nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB) activation, as well as tryptophan metabolism, was investigated in human myelomonocytic THP-1 and THP-1-Blue cells. Cells were exposed to the MAAs in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). NF-κB activity and the activity of tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) were used as readout. Compounds were tested in the concentration range from 12.5 to 200 µg/mL. Both MAAs were able to induce NF-κB activity in unstimulated THP-1-Blue cells, whereby the increase was dose-dependent and more pronounced with shinorine treatment. While shinorine also slightly superinduced NF-κB in LPS-stimulated cells, porphyra-334 reduced NF-κB activity in this inflammatory background. Modulation of tryptophan metabolism was moderate, suppressive in stimulated cells with the lower treatment concentration of both MAAs and with the unstimulated cells upon porphyra-334 treatment. Inflammatory pathways are affected by MAAs, but despite the structural similarity, diverse effects were observed. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Components from Fish for Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 113; doi:10.3390/md14060113
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 26 May 2016 / Published: 8 June 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended
[...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease remains the most common health problem in developed countries, and residual risk after implementing all current therapies is still high. Permanent changes in lifestyle may be hard to achieve and people may not always be motivated enough to make the recommended modifications. Emerging research has explored the application of natural food-based strategies in disease management. In recent years, much focus has been placed on the beneficial effects of fish consumption. Many of the positive effects of fish consumption on dyslipidemia and heart diseases have been attributed to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs, i.e., EPA and DHA); however, fish is also an excellent source of protein and, recently, fish protein hydrolysates containing bioactive peptides have shown promising activities for the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease and associated health complications. The present review will focus on n-3 PUFAs and bioactive peptides effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Moreover, since considerable controversy exists regarding the association between n-3 PUFAs and major cardiovascular endpoints, we have also reviewed the main clinical trials supporting or not this association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products that Target Metabolic Disorders)
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Open AccessReview A Review on the Valorization of Macroalgal Wastes for Biomethane Production
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 120; doi:10.3390/md14060120
Received: 10 April 2016 / Revised: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 13 June 2016 / Published: 21 June 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increased use of terrestrial crops for biofuel production and the associated environmental, social and ethical issues have led to a search for alternative biomass materials. Terrestrial crops offer excellent biogas recovery, but compete directly with food production, requiring farmland, fresh water and
[...] Read more.
The increased use of terrestrial crops for biofuel production and the associated environmental, social and ethical issues have led to a search for alternative biomass materials. Terrestrial crops offer excellent biogas recovery, but compete directly with food production, requiring farmland, fresh water and fertilizers. Using marine macroalgae for the production of biogas circumvents these problems. Their potential lies in their chemical composition, their global abundance and knowledge of their growth requirements and occurrence patterns. Such a biomass industry should focus on the use of residual and waste biomass to avoid competition with the biomass requirements of the seaweed food industry, which has occurred in the case of terrestrial biomass. Overabundant seaweeds represent unutilized biomass in shallow water, beach and coastal areas. These eutrophication processes damage marine ecosystems and impair local tourism; this biomass could serve as biogas feedstock material. Residues from biomass processing in the seaweed industry are also of interest. This is a rapidly growing industry with algae now used in the comestible, pharmaceutical and cosmetic sectors. The simultaneous production of combustible biomethane and disposal of undesirable biomass in a synergistic waste management system is a concept with environmental and resource-conserving advantages. Full article

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