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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 106; doi:10.3390/md14060106

Metals of Deep Ocean Water Increase the Anti-Adipogenesis Effect of Monascus-Fermented Product via Modulating the Monascin and Ankaflavin Production

1
Department of Life Science, National Taitung University, 369, Section 2, University Rd., Taitung 95092, Taiwan
2
Department of Nutrition and Health Science, Fooyin University, Kaohsiung 83102, Taiwan
3
Water Resource Division, Stone and Resource Industry R&D Center, Hualian 973, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul Long
Received: 8 April 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 20 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products that Target Metabolic Disorders)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3385 KB, uploaded 27 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Deep ocean water (DOW) obtained from a depth of more than 200 m includes abundant nutrients and minerals. DOW was proven to positively increase monascin (MS) and ankaflavin (AK) production and the anti-adipogenesis effect of Monascus-fermented red mold dioscorea (RMD). However, the influences that the major metals in DOW have on Monascus secondary metabolite biosynthesis and anti-adipogenesis remain unknown. Therefore, the major metals in DOW were used as the culture water to produce RMD. The secondary metabolites production and anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD cultured with various individual metal waters were investigated. In the results, the addition of water with Mg, Ca, Zn, and Fe increased MS and AK production and inhibited mycotoxin citrinin (CT). However, the positive influence may be contributed to the regulation of pigment biosynthesis. Furthermore, in the results of cell testing, higher lipogenesis inhibition was seen in the treatments of various ethanol extracts of RMD cultured with water containing Mg, K, Zn, and Fe than in those of RMD cultured with ultra-pure water. In conclusion, various individual metals resulted in different effects on MS and AK productions as well as the anti-adipogenesis effect of RMD, but the specific metals contained in DOW may cause synergistic or comprehensive effects that increase the significantly positive influence. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep ocean water; obesity; Monascus; monascin; ankaflavin deep ocean water; obesity; Monascus; monascin; ankaflavin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lung, T.-Y.; Liao, L.-Y.; Wang, J.-J.; Wei, B.-L.; Huang, P.-Y.; Lee, C.-L. Metals of Deep Ocean Water Increase the Anti-Adipogenesis Effect of Monascus-Fermented Product via Modulating the Monascin and Ankaflavin Production. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 106.

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