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Special Issue "Marine Fatty Acids-2016"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Valerie Smith

Scottish Oceans Institute, East Sands, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB, UK
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +44 1334 463443
Interests: marine microbiology and comparative immunology
Guest Editor
Dr. Andrew Desbois

Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, Stirlingshire, FK9 4LA, UK
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: discovery and development of antimicrobial compounds

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 2013, we issued a call for manuscript submissions to a special issue of Marine Drugs dedicated to marine fatty acids, Marine Fatty Acids-2013. This initial call resulted in the publication of 14 invited and offered manuscripts, including two review articles. The breadth of subject matter covered was considerable and included articles focusing on the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of marine-derived fatty acids and lipids (e.g., anti-viral, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties), the clinical effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplements, and further contributions devoted to fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism pathways of marine organisms. Following the success of the special issue in 2013, as Guest Editors we call again on researchers and scholars in the field to contribute manuscripts to be considered for inclusion in this second Marine Fatty Acids special issue of the journal. In particular, we welcome original research articles, comprehensive reviews and timely mini-reviews related to all aspects of marine fatty acids. Accepted manuscripts will be published Open Access.

Dr. Valerie J. Smith
Dr. Andrew P. Desbois
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial
  • eicosapentaenoic acid
  • glycolipid
  • lipids
  • marine chemical ecology
  • monounsaturated fatty acids
  • natural products
  • omega-3
  • phospholipid
  • polyunsaturated fatty acids
  • signalling

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle High-EPA Biomass from Nannochloropsis salina Cultivated in a Flat-Panel Photo-Bioreactor on a Process Water-Enriched Growth Medium
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(8), 144; doi:10.3390/md14080144
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 21 July 2016 / Accepted: 25 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2105 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina
[...] Read more.
Nannochloropsis salina was grown on a mixture of standard growth media and pre-gasified industrial process water representing effluent from a local biogas plant. The study aimed to investigate the effects of enriched growth media and cultivation time on nutritional composition of Nannochloropsis salina biomass, with a focus on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Variations in fatty acid composition, lipids, protein, amino acids, tocopherols and pigments were studied and results compared to algae cultivated on F/2 media as reference. Mixed growth media and process water enhanced the nutritional quality of Nannochloropsis salina in laboratory scale when compared to algae cultivated in standard F/2 medium. Data from laboratory scale translated to the large scale using a 4000 L flat panel photo-bioreactor system. The algae growth rate in winter conditions in Denmark was slow, but results revealed that large-scale cultivation of Nannochloropsis salina at these conditions could improve the nutritional properties such as EPA, tocopherol, protein and carotenoids compared to laboratory-scale cultivated microalgae. EPA reached 44.2% ± 2.30% of total fatty acids, and α-tocopherol reached 431 ± 28 µg/g of biomass dry weight after 21 days of cultivation. Variations in chemical compositions of Nannochloropsis salina were studied during the course of cultivation. Nannochloropsis salina can be presented as a good candidate for winter time cultivation in Denmark. The resulting biomass is a rich source of EPA and also a good source of protein (amino acids), tocopherols and carotenoids for potential use in aquaculture feed industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessArticle Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 105; doi:10.3390/md14060105
Received: 8 February 2016 / Revised: 1 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils
[...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessArticle Exploitable Lipids and Fatty Acids in the Invasive Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the French Atlantic Coast
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 104; doi:10.3390/md14060104
Received: 12 February 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 24 May 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive
[...] Read more.
Economic exploitation is one means to offset the cost of controlling invasive species, such as the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) on the French Atlantic coast. Total lipid and phospholipid (PL) fatty acids (FAs) and sterols were examined in an invasive population of C. gigas in Bourgneuf Bay, France, over four successive seasons, with a view to identify possible sources of exploitable substances. The total lipid level (% dry weight) varied from 7.1% (winter) to 8.6% (spring). Of this, PLs accounted for 28.1% (spring) to 50.4% (winter). Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant PL throughout the year (up to 74% of total PLs in winter). Plasmalogens were identified throughout the year as a series of eleven dimethylacetals (DMAs) with chain lengths between C16 and C20 (up to 14.5% of PL FAs + DMAs in winter). Thirty-seven FAs were identified in the PL FAs. Eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3 EPA/7.53% to 14.5%) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3 DHA/5.51% to 9.5%) were the dominant polyunsaturated FAs in all seasons. Two non-methylene-interrupted dienoic (NMID) FAs were identified in all seasons: 7,13-docosadienoic and 7,15-docosadienoic acids, the latter being present at relatively high levels (up to 9.6% in winter). Twenty free sterols were identified, including cholesterol at 29.9% of the sterol mixture and about 33% of phytosterols. C. gigas tissues thus contained exploitable lipids for health benefits or as a potential source of high-quality commercial lecithin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Studies on the Characteristic Fatty Acid Profiles of Four Different Chinese Medicinal Sargassum Seaweeds by GC-MS and Chemometrics
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(4), 68; doi:10.3390/md14040068
Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 29 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2244 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sargassum seaweeds produce abundant biomass in China and have long been used as herbal medicine and food. Their characteristic fatty acid (FA) profiles and related potential function in promoting cardiovascular health (CVH) have not been systematically investigated. In this study, FA profiles of
[...] Read more.
Sargassum seaweeds produce abundant biomass in China and have long been used as herbal medicine and food. Their characteristic fatty acid (FA) profiles and related potential function in promoting cardiovascular health (CVH) have not been systematically investigated. In this study, FA profiles of four medicinal Sargassum were characterized using GC-MS. Principal component analysis was used to discriminate the four medicinal Sargassum, and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis was carried out between the two official species HAI ZAO and between the two folk medicine species HAI QIAN. In all of the algae investigated, the major SFA and MUFA were palmitic and stearic acid, respectively, while the major PUFAs were linoleic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acid. S. fusiforme and S. horneri had higher concentrations of PUFAs. With respect to CVH, all of the studied species, particularly S. fusiforme, exhibited satisfactory levels such as PUFA/SFA ratio and n-6/n-3 ratio. Each species possesses a unique FA profile and is discriminated clearly. Potential key FA markers (between the two Chinese official species, and between the two folk species) are assessed. The study provides characteristic fatty acid profiles of four Chinese medicinal Sargassum and their related potential function in promoting CVH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Heterotrophic Production of Omega-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids by Trophically Converted Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(3), 53; doi:10.3390/md14030053
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 24 February 2016 / Accepted: 26 February 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (926 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We have created via metabolic engineering a heterotrophic strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum that accumulates enhanced levels of the high value omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This was achieved by generation of transgenic strains in which the Δ5-elongase from
[...] Read more.
We have created via metabolic engineering a heterotrophic strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum that accumulates enhanced levels of the high value omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This was achieved by generation of transgenic strains in which the Δ5-elongase from Ostreococcus tauri was co-expressed with a glucose transporter from the moss Physcomitrella patens. This double transformant has the capacity to grow in the dark in liquid medium supplemented with glucose and accumulate substantial levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs. The effects of glucose concentrations on growth and LC-PUFA production of wild type and transformed strains cultivated in the light and dark were studied. The highest omega-3 LC-PUFAs accumulation was observed in cultures grown under mixotrophic conditions in the presence of 1% glucose (up to 32.2% of total fatty acids, TFA). Both DHA and EPA are detected at high levels in the neutral lipids of transgenic cells grown under phototrophic conditions, averaging 36.5% and 23.6% of TFA, respectively. This study demonstrates the potential for P. tricornutum to be developed as a viable commercial strain for both EPA and DHA production under mixo- and heterotrophic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Lipidomic Approaches towards Deciphering Glycolipids from Microalgae as a Reservoir of Bioactive Lipids
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(5), 101; doi:10.3390/md14050101
Received: 19 February 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 12 May 2016 / Published: 19 May 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, noteworthy research has been performed around lipids from microalgae. Among lipids, glycolipids (GLs) are quite abundant in microalgae and are considered an important source of fatty acids (FAs). GLs are rich in 16- and 18-carbon saturated and unsaturated fatty acids
[...] Read more.
In recent years, noteworthy research has been performed around lipids from microalgae. Among lipids, glycolipids (GLs) are quite abundant in microalgae and are considered an important source of fatty acids (FAs). GLs are rich in 16- and 18-carbon saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and often contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) like n-3 α-linolenic (ALA 18:3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6). GLs comprise three major classes: monogalactosyldiacyl glycerolipids (MGDGs), digalactosyl diacylglycerolipids (DGDGs) and sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerolipids (SQDGs), whose composition in FA directly depends on the growth conditions. Some of these lipids are high value-added compounds with antitumoral, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities and also with important nutritional significance. To fully explore GLs’ bioactive properties it is necessary to fully characterize their structure and to understand the relation between the structure and their biological properties, which can be addressed using modern mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomic approaches. This review will focus on the up-to-date FA composition of GLs identified by MS-based lipidomics and their potential as phytochemicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Bacterial Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Their Biosynthetic Genes, Functions, and Practical Use
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(5), 94; doi:10.3390/md14050094
Received: 14 January 2016 / Revised: 23 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2107 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of
[...] Read more.
The nutritional and pharmaceutical values of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have been well recognized. These LC-PUFAs are physiologically important compounds in bacteria and eukaryotes. Although little is known about the biosynthetic mechanisms and functions of LC-PUFAs in bacteria compared to those in higher organisms, a combination of genetic, bioinformatic, and molecular biological approaches to LC-PUFA-producing bacteria and some eukaryotes have revealed the notably diverse organization of the pfa genes encoding a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase complex (PUFA synthase), the LC-PUFA biosynthetic processes, and tertiary structures of the domains of this enzyme. In bacteria, LC-PUFAs appear to take part in specific functions facilitating individual membrane proteins rather than in the adjustment of the physical fluidity of the whole cell membrane. Very long chain polyunsaturated hydrocarbons (LC-HCs) such as hentriacontanonaene are considered to be closely related to LC-PUFAs in their biosynthesis and function. The possible role of LC-HCs in strictly anaerobic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic environments and the evolutionary relationships of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria carrying pfa-like genes are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessReview Lipid Production from Nannochloropsis
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(4), 61; doi:10.3390/md14040061
Received: 13 December 2015 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 25 March 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1919 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the
[...] Read more.
Microalgae are sunlight-driven green cell factories for the production of potential bioactive products and biofuels. Nannochloropsis represents a genus of marine microalgae with high photosynthetic efficiency and can convert carbon dioxide to storage lipids mainly in the form of triacylglycerols and to the ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Recently, Nannochloropsis has received ever-increasing interests of both research and public communities. This review aims to provide an overview of biology and biotechnological potential of Nannochloropsis, with the emphasis on lipid production. The path forward for the further exploration of Nannochloropsis for lipid production with respect to both challenges and opportunities is also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessReview Biologically Active Oxylipins from Enzymatic and Nonenzymatic Routes in Macroalgae
Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(1), 23; doi:10.3390/md14010023
Received: 23 December 2015 / Revised: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 January 2016 / Published: 20 January 2016
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (4493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine algae are rich and heterogeneous sources of great chemical diversity, among which oxylipins are a well-recognized class of natural products. Algal oxylipins comprise an assortment of oxygenated, halogenated, and unsaturated functional groups and also several carbocycles, varying in ring size and position
[...] Read more.
Marine algae are rich and heterogeneous sources of great chemical diversity, among which oxylipins are a well-recognized class of natural products. Algal oxylipins comprise an assortment of oxygenated, halogenated, and unsaturated functional groups and also several carbocycles, varying in ring size and position in lipid chain. Besides the discovery of structurally diverse oxylipins in macroalgae, research has recently deciphered the role of some of these metabolites in the defense and innate immunity of photosynthetic marine organisms. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the chemistry, biosynthesis, ecology, and potential bioactivity of oxylipins from marine macroalgae. For a better understanding, enzymatic and nonenzymatic routes were separated; however, both processes often occur concomitantly and may influence each other, even producing structurally related molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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Open AccessReview Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Skeletal Muscle Health
Mar. Drugs 2015, 13(11), 6977-7004; doi:10.3390/md13116977
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 30 October 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1048 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on
[...] Read more.
Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue capable of adapting and mal-adapting to physical activity and diet. The response of skeletal muscle to adaptive stimuli, such as exercise, can be modified by the prior nutritional status of the muscle. The influence of nutrition on skeletal muscle has the potential to substantially impact physical function and whole body metabolism. Animal and cell based models show that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular those of marine origin, can influence skeletal muscle metabolism. Furthermore, recent human studies demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin can influence the exercise and nutritional response of skeletal muscle. These studies show that the prior omega-3 status influences not only the metabolic response of muscle to nutrition, but also the functional response to a period of exercise training. Omega-3 fatty acids of marine origin therefore have the potential to alter the trajectory of a number of human diseases including the physical decline associated with aging. We explore the potential molecular mechanisms by which omega-3 fatty acids may act in skeletal muscle, considering the n-3/n-6 ratio, inflammation and lipidomic remodelling as possible mechanisms of action. Finally, we suggest some avenues for further research to clarify how omega-3 fatty acids may be exerting their biological action in skeletal muscle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
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