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Mar. Drugs 2016, 14(6), 105; doi:10.3390/md14060105

Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

1
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Iceland, Hofsvallagata 53, 107 Reykjavik, Iceland
2
Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Sæmundargata 2, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
3
Lipid Pharmaceuticals, Grandagardur 16, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrew Desbois
Received: 8 February 2016 / Revised: 1 May 2016 / Accepted: 16 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Fatty Acids-2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [414 KB, uploaded 1 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid); DHA (docosahexaenoic acid); EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid); FA (fatty acid); ointment PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid); DHA (docosahexaenoic acid); EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid); FA (fatty acid); ointment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ilievska, B.; Loftsson, T.; Hjalmarsdottir, M.A.; Asgrimsdottir, G.M. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies. Mar. Drugs 2016, 14, 105.

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